1. Word is a meaningful sound or combination of sounds that is a unit of language or its representation in a text.
Phrase is a group of words that together have a particular meaning, especially when they express the meaning well in a few words.
Clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, but which is usually only part of a sentence. And it is a group of words without a finite verb, especially when they are used to form part of a sentence, such as “walking along the road” and “a bar of soap”.
Sentence is a group of words that usually contains a subject and a verb, expresses a complete idea or asks a question, and that, when written in English, begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. For example: She has a beautiful dress.
2. Differences between sentence, paragraph, and essay.
Sentence is a Fundamentally Human creation. Like the human beings who write them, sentences come in see writing endless variety of shapes and sizes. Some street stretch and for line upon line, others stop short after two or there cords.
- Yet the sentence has a basic structure, just as the human body does.
Despite the variety in the human race, there are certain things we can say about all human bodies, or about the human body does. Despite the variety in the human rice, the are certain things we can say about all human bodies, or a bout the human body, the structure that all of us share as long as we live. And despite the variety in sentence, the structure that most of us use wherever we write.
- A sentence normally has a subject and a predicate.
The subject is the word or word group that tells who or what perform/ under goes the action named by the verb/ experiences. The condition named. Predicate is the word/ word group that normally follows the subject and tells what it does, has, or is what is does to it / where it is.
- Every sentence normally has at least one combination of subject & predicate.
Paragraph is composed of a sentence or a chart of sentence the writer has grouped together for some definite reason.
Difference: there a two basic kinds of paragraphs
v Topic sentence paragraph; that is also dramatic, and it’s possible to have a function paragraph that adds detail. The TSP has a clear logic; there is idea, ether stated or implied and a group of sentence that develop that idea.
v The function paragraph is a different matter entirely. In it, you won’t find or main idea set fort and developed. A function paragraph may be only or sentence, It’s a
- Paragraph” only because it is indented.
· Function paragraph paragraphs usually have no logic except the author’s own
· They aren’t caused by a new thought
· They don’t have main idea sentence
· They don’t develop a topic
· They de how ever however, keep the reader moving, provide continuity in essay five a sense of drama, and reflect the individual personality of the writer.
There are some General Principles to follow in constructing paragraph
- A paragraph constitutes the development of single idea, which can usually be summarized in a single sentence.
- It is a good idea for in experienced writers to state the idea of the paragraph explicitly, using a single sentence called the topic sentence some where in the paragraph
- A paragraph should contain definition, details, examples, and reasons that clearly and support the topic sentence.
- Details that are not essential to clarifying of supporting the tone sentence should be left out
- The development should be logical. The details must be put down in the order that makes the best sense, and relationships between and among the sentence of the paragraph must be put down in the order that makes the best sense, and relationships between and among the sentences of the paragraph must be clear and obvious.
Essay is only are form of writing practiced in the academic and bujin word
Essay may be written on all manner of subjects; and they can be long some times approaching 25,000 word.
Characteristics of the Essay
- Essay Appear in many different forms, but every essay 5 has two features the rhetorical context and theatrical structure. Rhetorical context is the reason that the essay exist: a writer has a purpose an audience for an essay. And rhetorical structure is the way the writer chooses to shape the essay so it best full fills that purpose & reaches that audiences. There 2 mayor element of the essay are to any document that you right write or read: a business letter, an e-mail, a resume or a menu.
- Clause is a word group consisting of a subject and a predicate.
Why You Should Not Smoke
By Luisa Moad ITESM, Campus Queretaro Advanced English C
I am sure that you know that smoking harms your body. Then why do you continue smoking? Maybe you do it because you haven’t really become conscious about all the effects that smoking has. There are a lot of reasons why you shouldn’t smoke. Some of them are that smoking affects your health, that you spend a lot of money on cigarettes, and that when you smoke you are not respecting people around you.
The first reason why you shouldn’t smoke is that smoking affects your health. If you smoke, your physical condition will be negatively affected, so it will be very difficult for you to succeed in sports. Also, smoking produces lethal diseases like cancer and reduces the length and quality of your life. Maybe you don’t notice all the physical effects of smoking immediately, but you surely will be sorry one day.
The second reason why you shouldn’t smoke is because of all the money that you spend on it. Maybe you start smoking only when someone offers you a cigarette, but there will be a day when you will feel the need of a cigarette. By this time, you will pay whatever to smoke, and each time you will smoke more, so you will spend more money. All the money you would spend on cigars could have be spent in something better, don’t you think?
The last reason why you shouldn’t smoke is out of respect for the people around you. When you smoke, you not only harm yourself, but you also harm all the people around you. So you mustn’t be selfish; you should at least avoid smoking in front of people who don’t smoke. Also, many people don’t like the cigarette’s smell, so they won’t enjoy your company. Would you like that?
I have said just some reasons of why you shouldn’t smoke, so I hope that now those of you who smoke are able to think a little and try to make a smart decision. In addition to all the reasons I’ve said, I would like you to think about how much you love yourself and then whether you want to continue harming yourself. Think also about all the people who love you, like your family who doesn’t want to see you suffering or sick. If you decide to continue smoking, what a pity. But if you decide to stop smoking, congratulations! Remember that “If you can dream it, you can do it.”
Introduction in essay above is the first paragraph
Sentence: I am sure that you know that smoking harms your body.
Developmental paragraph in essay above is second until fourth paragraph.
1) The first reason why you shouldn’t smoke is that smoking affects your health.
2) The second reason why you shouldn’t smoke is because of all the money that you spend on it.
3) The last reason why you shouldn’t smoke is out of respect for the people around you.
Concluding paragraph in essay above is the last paragraph.
Sentence: I have said just some reasons of why you shouldn’t smoke, so I hope that now those of you who smoke are able to think a little and try to make a smart decision.
4. There are some types of composition or essay:
Narration is tells story about a series of events or actions. The events may be real or nonfiction as in histories, biographies, and newspaper stories or imagery or fiction, as in short stories, novels, and plays.
- Narratives are generally written in the first person, that is, using “I.” However, third person (“he,” “she,” or “it”) can also be used.
- Narratives rely on concrete, sensory details to convey their point. These details should create a unified, forceful effect, a dominant impression. More information on sensorydetailsis available.
- Narratives, as stories, should include these story conventions: a plot, including setting and characters; a climax; and an ending.
Principles of Writing Narrative Essays
- Remember to involve readers in the story. It is much more interesting to actually recreate an incident for readers than to simply tell about it.
- Find a generalization which the story supports. This is the only way the writer’s personal experience will take on meaning for readers. This generalization does not have to encompass humanity as a whole; it can concern the writer, men, women, or children of various ages and backgrounds.
- Remember that although the main component of a narrative is the story, details must be carefully selected to support, explain, and enhance the story.
Description is portrays people, places, things, moments and theories with enough vivid detail to help the reader create a mental picture of what is being written about. Or other meaning is give senses impressions, the feel, sound, taste, smell, and look of things. Emotions may be described too, Feeling such as happiness, fear, loneliness, gloom, and joy. Description helps the reader, through his/her imagination, to visualize a scene or a person, or to understand a sensation or an emotion.
1) Appealing-to-the-Senses Description: Let the reader see, smell, hear, taste, and feel what you write in your essay.
2) Spatial-Order Description: Show the reader where things are located from your perspective.
Things to Consider as You Write Your Descriptive Essay:
- Think of an instance that you want to describe.
- Why is this particular instance important?
- What were you doing?
- What other things were happening around you? Is there anything specific that stands out in your mind?
- Where were objects located in relation to where you were?
- How did the surroundings remind you of other places you have been?
- What sights, smells, sounds, and tastes were in the air?
- Did the sights, smells, sounds, and tastes remind you of anything?
- What were you feeling at that time?
- Has there been an instance in which you have felt this way before?
- What do you want the reader to feel after reading the paper?
- What types of words and images can convey this feeling?
- Can you think of another situation that was similar to the one you are writing about? How can it help explain what you are writing about?
- Is there enough detail in your essayto create a mental image for the reader?
Exposition is can be either oral or written. It is used to explain, interpret, inform, or describe. An expository writer must assume that the audience has no prior knowledge regarding the topic being discussed. So the topic must be written in a clear manner explaining how things work (you can however, leave out common knowledge–you probably are not writing for first graders).
- Each supporting paragraph must have a distinct controlling topic and all other sentences must factually relate directly to it. The transition words or phrases are important as they help the reader follow along and reinforce the logic.
- Finally, the conclusion paragraph should originally restate the thesis and the main supporting ideas. Finish with the statement that reinforces your position in a meaningful and memorable way.
- Never introduce new material in the conclusion.
Argumentation is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others’. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don’t agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true. It clearly explains the process of your reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown. Without doing this you do not have an argument, you have only an assertion, an essay that is just your unsubstantiated opinion.
Elizabeth, WRITING Brief edition, Scott. Foresman and company, USA, 1983. (Page 119-120)
Pharr, Donald & Buscemi V, Santi, Writing Today, Mc Graw- Hill company Inc, New York, 2005. (Page 4-5)
Hefferman, A James & E-Lincoln, Jhon, writing A College Hans book Second Edition, w.w porton 7 Company, Ina, USA, 1986. (Page 603)
Hefferman, A James & E-Lincoln, Jhon, A College Hard Book SECOND EDITION, Norton company, Inc. USA, 1982. (Page 227-228)
Seddeyo, Doroty, college writers work book, bell & Howell company, USA, 1981. (Page 27-28)
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