Language in Diversity

Common Expressions in English

 

A.    Expression of greeting

1.      Understanding and / for Expressing Greeting

  • Read the following dialogue!

–        Halley                        : Good Afternoon, Miss Jane. How are you?

–        Jane                 : Afternoon. Fine. Thanks. And you?

–        Halley            : I’m too. How about having lunch together? It is lunch time, isn’t it?

–        Jane                 : Oh, I’m very sorry. I have something important to do? How about going at Pitt Restaurant tomorrow afternoon.

–        Halley                        : All right. See you tomorrow.

–        Jane                 : see you tomorrow. Bye

  • Study the following expression!

–        Good morning          : between 12:00 am – 12:00 pm

–        Good afternoon        : between 12:00 pm – 06:00 pm

–        Good evening           : after work or 06:00 pm

–        Good night                : separating to sleep

–        Hi                                : anytime address to equals

–        Hello                          : anytime address to equals or older people

–        Good bye

–        See you tomorrow

–        See you later have a nice day

 2.      Understanding and / for Expressing introduction to other people

  • Read the following dialogue!

–        Head Master             : Mr. John, I’d like you to meet Mr. Kim, Rouge’ father.

Mr. John                     : How do you do.

Mr. Kim                     : How do you do.

–        Anne                           : Let me introduce my friend, Mary to you.

Mary                           : How do you do

Mark                           : How do you do

      Dialogue

       Donald Holton, the host, is greeting guests at an international cocktail party for teacher and students. He shakes hand with Miss Maria Romero, talks to her for a few minutes and then introduces her to another guest.

Holton                  : Ah, Mr. Elphinstone. Let me introduce you to Miss Romero.

Elphinstone         : How do you do, Miss Romero.

Maria                    : How do you do

Elphinstone         : Let me get you a drink. What will you have? I think there are cocktails or sherry.

Maria                    : Sherry, please. Dry, if possible.

Elphinstone         : [to Holton] Can I bring you anything Sir?

Holton                  : No, thank you. My glass is over there. [Elphinstone goes off to fetch a drink]

Holton                  : How are you getting on in England, Miss Romero? Are you finding the language difficult?

Maria                    : No, No at all. You see, my brother is English, though this is my first visit to England. Lots of other things, especially finding my way about, seem far more difficult.

Holton                  : But you are enjoying your self, I hope?

Maria                    : Very much. And I am making a lot of new friends. [Elphinstone returns with a drink which he gives to Maria]

Elphinstone         : Here you are. One dry sherry.

Maria                    : Thank you.

Elphinstone         : [Before drinking from his own glass] Cheers! [They drink]

Holton                  : And now please excuse me. I must meet some new arrivals. [He goes off]

Maria                    : I am sorry. Can you tell me your name again? I can’t remember it.

Elphinstone         : Elphinstone. It is rather long. Call me Bob. So much easier.

Maria                    : I’m Maria. Do you live in London?

Elphinstone         : No, I come from Edinburgh. I’m just staying here for a fortnight.

[Dr. Mackenzie, who is just passing, suddenly sees Elphinstone]

Mackenzie           : Well! It’s Bob Elphinstone! Good evening. What are you doing in London?

Elphinstone         : Dr. Mackenzie! How nice to see you! How are you?

Mackenzie           : Not so bad. A bit of cold. There’s an old friend of yours just behind you. Gregory! Here’s Bob Elphinstone.

Gregory               : Hallo, Bob. Three good Scots in London. How’s life?

Elphinstone         : Pretty good. Let me introduce you both to Miss Romero.

Dr. Mackenzie and I am Gregory.

[They shake hands]

Maria                       : Do you all come from Edinburgh?

Elphinstone         : We are medical students there. Dr. Mackenzie is one of our tutors. Are you student, Maria?

Maria                    : I hope to be a student. I want to read history at London University, but I have to pass an examination before I can be accepted.

Elphinstone         : Best of luck to you. we have finals next year.

Gregory               : Look Mr. Holton is going to make a speech.

[Everyone is silent and turns to face Holton]

Holton                     : Ladies and Gentlemen! We are very pleased to welcome……

Dalam bahasa Inggris perkenalan biasanya dilakukan oleh orang ketiga, perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut:

  1. May I introduce you to Mr. Robinson? This is Mr. Baker.

How do you do – How do you do.

  1. Let me introduce you to Miss Smith. This is Mr. Brown.

How do you do – How do you do. Atau di Merica misalnya

Pleased to meet you – pleased to meet you, yang dipakai.

  1. This is Mr. Brown…..This is Miss Smith.

How do you do – How do you do.

Apabila tidak ada orang ketiga yang memperkenalkan anda, maka anda dapat memperkenalkan diri anda kepada orang lain dengan mengatakan.

May I introduce my self? My name is Maria.

How do you do. My name is Ronald.

Satu hal yang harus anda ingat adalah bahwa “How do you do” hanya dapat dipakai pada pertemuan pertama. Pada pertemuan berikutnya “How do you do” tidak boleh dipakai.

Apabila anda secara sengaja atau tidak sengaja bertemu Dengan orang yang sama pada kesempatan lain. Maka, anda cukup mengatakan “good morning”, “good afternoon”, “good evening” atau “good night” yang hanya dipakai pada waktu berpisah pada malam hari atau pada waktu anda akan tidur.

Apabila anda bertemu Dengan orang yang anda lebih kenal, anda dapat mengatakan “how are you”, jawaban yang paling umum yang diberikan adalah “very well”, “thank you” atau “fine, thanks. Jawaban terhadap “how are you?” tentu saja tergantung dari bagaimana perasaan anda pada waktu itu. Anda dapat saja mengatakan:

  1. Not very well/not too well, I am afraid.
  2. much better now, thank you
  3. I’ve slight cold just now, but not so bad.

 B.     Expression of Capability and incapability

    1. 1.      Understanding and / for Expressing

*        If we want to say capability, we can use the following expression

–        I can ……

–        I know how to ……

–        I have ability in ……

–        I am able to ……

–        I’m good at …….

*        If we want to say incapability, we can use the following expression

–        I can’t ……

–        I don’t know how to ……

–         I don’t have ability in ……

–        I am not able to ……

–        I’m not good at …….

–        I don’t have experience of ……

2.      dialogue

–        Andrew    : What did you think about this film?

–        Ray           : What film? Did you think about this film?

–        Andrew    : Yes

–        Ray           : I thought it was quite good.

–        Andrew    : Did you watch the gymnastics and the exercise?

–        Ray           : if you learn coordination, you’ll find that you are able to use your muscles, so that all your movements seem easy and graceful. By the way, did you watch Mara Dona play with a ball?

–        Andrew    : it looked like miracle. He could play with a ball in the air in a long time, with his head, elbow, shoulder, knees, back and all parts of his body without touching the ground.

Pay attention into this dialogue

–        Gary         : Is this the new computer we  bought yesterday

–        Rooney    : Yes, can you operate it?

–        Gary         : I think I don’t have ability in operating this machine. Can the new machine capable of processing the data fast.

–        Rooney    : Of course. If you can operate it, you can process the data fast

–        Gary         : I think we should have a private course, so we will be able to operate it

–        Rooney    : I think you are right

C.    Expression of invitation

    1. 1.      Understanding and Expressing invitation

*        We can use the following expressions for inviting:

–        Would you like to ……?

–        Why don’t you ……?

–        Do you fancy to …….?

–        Would you mind ……?

–        Do you feel like ……?

–        How about ……?

–        Is there any chance of …..?

–        Do you want to ……?

–        Would you interest ……?

–        Would you be interested in …….?

*        We can use the following expressions for accepting invitation:

–        Yes, I’d love to

–        Yes, I’d like to

–        That sounds a nice idea

–        I’d be happy to accept

–        I won’t say no

–        With pleasure

–        I’d be delighted

–        That’s good idea

*        We can use the following expressions for refusing invitation:

–        I’d love to but ……

–        I’m sorry, I can’t, I have to …..

–        I’m afraid I can’t, I have to …..

–        Thank, that’s great, but I’m sorry, I’ll …..

–        Thanks anyway, but ……

–        I don’t think I can

2.      Dialogue

–        Mrs. Jolla             : What are you going to order, Mrs. Mila?

–        Mrs. Mila             : Well, I like vegetable salad and a glass of orange juice. How about you?

–        Mrs. Jolla             : Yes, I like well done steak with potato and boiled vegetable. A glass of mineral water will be nice. Waiter, this is our order.

–        Waiter                  : Yes, Mom. And would you like some desert.

–        Mrs. Mila             : Oh, yes. I’d like some apple pie. And what about you, Mrs. Jolla?

–        Mrs. Jolla             : Some fruit is nice, I think.

–        Waiter                  : Ok, Mom. Wait a minute; I’ll bring your order.

–        Mrs. Mila             : What do you think of these foods?

–        Mrs. Jolla             : I think it was quite delicious.

–        Mrs. Mila             : Yes I think so. Well, it’s time for us to work again

–        Mrs. Jolla             : Yes, by the way, I’d like you to come and see us someday, so we can have dinner at my house.

–        Mrs. Mila             : Oh, I’d love to. But I must confirm with my schedule first.

–        Mrs. Jolla             : That’s no problem.

 D.   Expression of Imperative

    1. 1.      Understanding and Expressing Imperative

*        Imperative sentence adalah kalimat perintah baik perintah melakukan atau perintah meninggalkan. dalam kalimat perintah yang menjadi subjectnya adalah orang ke dua (you) yang dianggap sudah dipaham sehingga tidak perlu disebutkan lagi, dan biasanya ditambah kata please di awal atau di akhir kalimat. Dalam bentuk kalimat tertulis , kalimat imperative selalu ditandai dengan tanda seru dan menggunakan kat kerja bentuk pertama (bare infinitive/verb tanpa To)

Ex: keep silent please!

Please hold up your hand!

Tell them to speak English!

dan untuk kalimat perintah yang menunjukkan larangan, adalah dengan menambahkan kata Don’t di awal kalimat.

Ex: don’t keep silent please!

Please don’t hold up your hand!

Don’t tell them to speak English!

Apabila dalam kalimat perintah tidak ada kata kerja maka harus ditambah dengan kata be di awal kalimat:

Ex: be on time please!

Be trustworthy people please!

Please be sincere!

Dan untuk perintah yang menunjukkan larangan dalam kalimat yang tidak mempunyai verb (kata kerja), maka dengan menambahkan kata Don’t be di awal.

Ex: don’t be here please!

Don’t be naughty people please!

Please don’t be like a child!

 2.      Dialogue

–        Scott          : What is your opinion about a clean house?

–        Gray         : In my opinion, the house should not be in a mess. It should be free from any kinds of insects, in order to enjoy staying at home.

–        Scott          : And then, what should we do to keep the house clean and healthy?

–        Gray         : We should clean our rooms and the environments everyday. Beside that, we should put the rubbish bins to throw away garbage into it.

–        Scott          : it will be very nice if everyone can do that

–        Gray         : Actually, I’d like to do that, bat I’m not sure I can because I’m busy

–        Scott          : Try not to say “I can’t”. Manage your time!

 E.     Expression of Sympathy and Hope

    1. 1.      Understanding and expressing Sympathy

*        To express sympathy, we can use the expressions below

–        Poor you (noun/pronoun)

–        You must be very upset

–        That’s a pity

–        How pity you are (S + be)

–        I’m sorry to hear that

–        I’m deeply sorry

2.      Dialogue

–         Mr. Franco : Do you know that Mr. Halley is in hospital?

–        Mr. Jimmy  : No, I don’t. What’s wrong with him?

–        Mr. Franco  : He had an accident not so far from his house.

–        Mr. Jimmy  : Yes, I know about it. It was gardening when the accident happened, I didn’t think that it was him. Is he seriously injured? Did you know why?

–        Mr. Franco  : He always quarrels with his wife. When he left this morning, it was raining. He drove his car very fast. The brake didn’t work well. First, he hit a tricycle then his car hit the tree.

–        Mr. Jimmy  : I’m sorry to hear that. Shall we go to visit him now?

–        Mr. Franco  : I have been there. How about tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock. I’ll fetch you.

–        Mr. Jimmy  : Yes, please. And thank you, I’ll wait for you.

 3.      Understanding and expressing hope

*        To express hope, use the following expressions:

–        We’re still hoping

–        I hope so

–        I wish that

4.      Dialogue

–        Adriano      : What do you like?

–        Lindsay       : I’m very keen on cheese

–        Adriano      : Why do you like it?

–        Lindsay       : I think it is very challenging

–        Adriano      : How about hiking?

–        Lindsay       : I think hiking is very enjoyable. We can see that our surrounding is very beautiful. So we can feel that we care with those environments.

–        Adriano      : Yes, you right. And do you like smoking?

–        Lindsay       : I dislike smoking; it makes bad effect to our health. The are many people who died because of smoking.

–        Adriano      : I wish that no one will die for the next time

–        Lindsay       : I hope so

 F.     Expression of Permission

  1. Understanding and Expressing permission

*        The expression for asking permission:

–        May I ……., please?

–        Can I ……, please?

–        Could I……., please?

–        Do you mind if I …..?

–        I wonder if I could ….?

–        Is it all right if……?

–        Please let (indirect object) + verb bare infinitive

–        Please allow/permit (indirect object) + verb infinitive

*        The expression for giving permission:

–        Of course

–        By all means

–        Yes, you may/can

–        Certainly

–        Go ahead

–        Yes, why not?

*        The expressions for refusing permission:

–        I’m sorry, that’s not allowed

–        I’m afraid, we can’t have

–        I’m afraid that’s not possible

–        I’m sorry you can’t

–        Sorry, but I’m using it

  1. Dialogue

–        Mrs. Jones   : Good afternoon. I have been recommended to you by a friend who tells me that you are an excellent dressmaker. My name is Mrs. Jones.

–        Dressmaker   : thank you! Won’t you come in, please?

–        Mrs. Jones   : If you don’t mind, May I sit down. I had to walk some distance to find your place. Foolishly, I had jotted down your address incorrectly.

–        Dressmaker   : By all means. How unfortunate!

–        Mrs. Jones   : I have brought material for two dresses which I want you to make for me. I do hope you can do them right away. I also brought one or two things I want you to fix for me.

–        Dressmaker   : [Looking at dresses] I’m afraid that I am too busy to make any dresses for you. It’s close to the holidays, and it seems that every one of my customers needs a new dress at this particular season. I’ll be glad to do any minor alterations for you.

–        Mrs. Jones   : Heavens! What shall I do? I haven’t a decent thing to wear.

–        Dressmaker   : Perhaps you can buy something ready-made and let the dresses go until after the holidays. They have some very pretty dresses in the store now.

 G.   Expression of an apology

    1. 1.      Understanding and Expressing an apology

*        To express apology, we can use the following expressions:

–        Excuse me for ……(V-ing)

–        Please accept my apologies

–        I’m sorry for being late

–        I’m very sorry …..

–        I’m terrible sorry ….

–        Please forgive me for ….. (V-ing)

–        I have to apologize for …. (V-ing)

*        To answer we can say the expressions below:

–        Don’t worry

–        It doesn’t matter

–        Never mind

–        Forget it

–        No problem

–        That’s ok

–        That’s all right

2.      Dialogue

Mrs. Smith is in the market, she wants to buy some fish, meat, vegetables, eggs, flour, salt, butter, sugar and coconut oil. She is in Mr. Albert’s shop.

*        Mrs. Smith         : I want to buy some fish, meat, vegetables, eggs, flour, salt, butter, sugar and coconut oil. I want two kilograms of flour. How much is it a kilogram?

*        Mr. Albert          : one kilogram of flour is four thousand rupiahs

*        Mrs. Smith         : how much is one tin of butter?

*        Mr. Albert          : seven thousand rupiahs

*        Mrs. Smith         : one bottle of coconut oil, please. How much is a bottle of coconut oil?

*        Mr. Albert          : eight thousand rupiahs

*        Mrs. Smith         : how much is a kilogram of eggs?

*        Mr. Albert          : I’m sorry I don’t sell eggs. That shops opposite sells eggs

*        Mrs. Smith         : does it sell meat and meat too?

*        Mr. Albert          : it sells meat but it doesn’t sell fish. The fish is near the vegetable stalls.

*        Mrs. Smith         : oh, yes. Do you have any salt?

*        Mr. Albert          : yes, a block of salt is one thousand rupiahs. Do you want anything else?

*        Mrs. Smith         : no, how much do you want for everything?

*        Mr. Albert          : twenty thousand rupiahs

*        Mrs. Smith         : here it is.

*        Mr. Albert          : thank you

*        Mrs. Smith         : Excuse me or for disturbing. Would you tell me how I can get there?

*        Mr. Albert          : go straight, than to the left!

*        Mrs. Smith         : thank you

*        Mr. Albert          : of course you are

 H.   Expression of offer

  1. Understanding and expressing an offer

*        To express an offer, we use: shall, would like to, let, or allow

–        Would you like me ……. (infinitive)

–        What can I do for you?

–        Let + (indirect object) ……. (bare infinitive)

–        Allow + (indirect object) ….. (bare infinitive)

–        Shall I …… (bare infinitive)

*        And to reply, we can use the following expressions:

–        Thank you very much (agree)

–        No, thank you (disagree)

  1. Dialogue

–        Lenny       : What’s this? The colors are beautiful, Lola?

–        Lola          : That is the dress which my sister gave me for my birth day.

–        Lenny       : I asked you to buy fruit this morning. Where is it now?

–        Lola          : The fruit that I brought is on the refrigerator, would you like me to take it?

–        Lenny       : No, thank you. I can take it by my self.

–        Lola          : Ok!

–        Lenny       : There is not there, who takes it?

–        Father       : May be your brother has eaten it.

–        Lenny       : Thank you, Dad.

–        Father       : Have you heard that spaceship “Columbia” has returned this afternoon?

–        Lenny       : Yes, their experiments proved that there is no evidence that the life has ever existed on the moon.

–         Lola         : What is Galaxy, Dad?

–        Father       : it is the band of countless stars which stretches across the sky.

 I.       Expression of request

  1. Understanding and expressing request

*        To express request, we can use the expressions below:

–        Would you mind …..(V-ing)

–        Would you please ……(bare infinitive)

–        Could/can you …….. (bare infinitive)

–        If you don’t mind, may I …….

*        To accept request, we use:

–        No, I wouldn’t

–        Yes, I would

–        Yes I can/could

–        No, I don’t mind

–        Sure, here ……..

*        To refuse the request, we use:

–        Sorry I couldn’t/can’t

–        Sorry, I have to ……. (bare infinitive)

  1. Dialogue

–        Carla         : Did you read the Jakarta post yesterday?

–        Donna      : No, what’s the matter?

–        Carla         : There was a good vacancy at a five stars international hotel. Do you like to apply for?

–        Donna      : What section needs the employee?

–        Carla         : At the mart marketing divisions. I think you are capable working in that section.

–        Donna      : No you are mistaken. I don’t have any expression about that.

–        Carla         : So, what do you think you’re interesting in?

–        Donna      : I think I have the qualifications necessary for the HRD section

–        Carla         : But it didn’t open the vacancy

–        Donna      : Oh that’s too bad

–        Carla         : if you don’t mind, may I borrow the news paper.

–        Donna      : No, I don’t mind. Wait a moment, I am about take it. (while drinking a cup of tea)

–        Carla         : thank you

 J.       Expression of Pleasure and Displeasure

  1. Understanding and Expressing of pleasure and displeasure

*        To show that you are pleased, the following expression can be used:

–        Fantastic!

–        I’m very delighted/happy/pleased to hear that

–        I’m very pleased with ……

–        It’s great pleasure to …….

*        To show that you are not pleased, the following expression can be used:

–        Oh, no!

–        I can’t stand ……

–        I am extremely unpleased to ……

–        I am fed up ……

  1. Dialogue

–        Mrs. Cathy  : In me, Ready-made dresses are just a waste of money for me. By the time they finish altering them to suit me, they no longer have any style, and very often the whole dress is completely ruined. It seems that I’m too broad in the hips and too narrow in other places for them to fit me correctly. I supposed it is really difficult for a stout person. I know that I should reduce – but it’s so difficult. I’ve tried everything, but I seem to get fatter every day instead of thinner.

–        Mrs. Jim      : I presume you have experimented with diets

–        Mrs. Cathy  : I’m on diet now – but I am not promising anyone that I’m going to stay on it. I’m extremely unpleased to do it. The trouble is that every time a doctor gives me a diet. It is a diet of things I don’t like to eat. Why can’t they ever give me a diet of things I enjoy eating? Life is complicated. I sometimes feel like the famous writer said that everything he seemed to enjoy was illegal, immoral or fattening.

–        Mrs. Jim      : What was the dress you wanted me to fix for you, Mrs. Jones? Would you care to slip it on?

–        Mrs. Cathy : [Mrs. Cathy puts on dress] this is a dress that has gotten too tight for me. Do you think you can let it out a little? I believe so. I can open the seams. It’s also a little tight through the back and shoulders, but I don’t suppose you can do anything about that.

–        Mrs. Jim      : I can change the neckline. I can cut it lower and in that way give you a little more fullness in the blouse. Instead of buttons down the front, you would have a V neckline. I could even give you a round neckline if you prefer.

–        Mrs. Cathy  : Either one will be alright

–        Mrs. Jim      : Before you take the dress of, Mrs. Jones., let me mark the hemline. It hangs a little low in the back.

–        Mrs. Cathy  : I also want you to move the buttons on this blouse with I have brought along. The blouse is also tight for me but I believe that all it needs is to move the buttons over a half inch or so.

–        Mrs. Jim      : It’s a lovely blouse. Did you get it here in New York? The embroidery work on it is beautiful.

–        Mrs. Cathy  : A friend of mine brought it to me from Italy last summer. It’s all handmade. She also brought me another that has the new full raglan sleeves that I like very much. I’m very pleasure with pretty blouses. Blouses are one of the few things that seem to look well on me. What a problem it is for fat people like me to dress well.

 K.    Expression of possibility and Impossibility

  1. Understanding and Expressing of possibility and Impossibility

*        To show that something is possible to happen, the following expressions can be used:

–        It’s likely to ……

–        There is a good chance to ……

–        It’s not unlikely that ……

–        I think there is very possibility for ……

–        May be ……….

–        S + probably + verb

*        To show that something is not possible to happen, the following expressions can be used:

–        It’s unlikely to ……

–        It’s impossible/not possible/not probable that ……..

–        May be not. It’s very doubtful for ……

–        May be not. It’s very doubtful to ……

–        I think there is very little chance to…….

  1. Dialogue

–        Alice            : I’m angry with Bob.

–        Tommy       : Why do you angry with him?

–        Alice            : He has promised me to train our football team.

–        Tommy       : No, He doesn’t.

–        Alice            : he probably has an activity.

–        Tommy       : But, he said that he would train our football team the following day

–        Alice            : Just call him up!

–        Tommy       : its good idea, maybe he forgets it.

 L.     Expression of Certainty and Uncertainty

1.      Understanding and Expressing of certainty and uncertainty

*        If we want to say certainty, we can use the following expressions:

–        I am certain (that) ……

–        I am sure (that)…….

–        Yes, really …….

–        Yes, of course

–        Certainly

–        I am convinced (that) ….

*        If we want to say uncertainty, we can use the following expressions:

–        I am not certain (that) ……

–        I am not sure (that)…….

–        of course not

–        Certainly not

–        I am not convinced (that) ….

–        I doubt

2.      Dialogue

–        Ella           : Hi, Rose. What are you doing?

–        Rose         : I make some burger for my lunch

–        Ella           : Really? Can you make it by yourself?

–        Rose         : Of course. I cut the tomato myself with knife. And I arrange them with meat, mayonnaise, sauce and fresh salad. Do you like to have one?

–        Ella           : yes, but I want to arrange them myself

–        Rose         : Ok. After arrange them yourself, let’s go to the dinning room

–        Ella           : Ok.

 M.  Expression of Agreement and Disagreement

  1. Understanding and Expressing agreement and disagreement

*        To express agreement, we can use the following expressions:

–        I agree with you

–        I quite agree with you

–        I approve of your plan

–        I think so

–        I’m behind you

–        You are right

–        I don’t have any objection

–        That’s good idea

–        That’s true

–        That’s right

*        To express disagreement, we can use the following expressions:

–        I disagree with you

–        I don’t agree with you

–        I don’t I agree with you

–        I don’t think so

–        I don’t approve of your idea

–        Well, s a matter of fact I don’t agree

–        I can’t accept it

  1. Dialogue

–        Johnny      : Next Thursday is holiday. Mr. Holmes, We don’t have school on either Thursday or Friday.

–        Teacher    : You are right, Johnny. Next Thursday is thanksgiving.

–        Johnny      : I’ve decided, Mr. Holmes, that I like school after all.

–        Teacher    : What made you change your mind so suddenly?

–        Johnny      : Because I figure that if it weren’t for school we wouldn’t have any holidays. Isn’t that right?

–        Teacher    : Since you are so interested in holidays, Johnny, I can tell you that we are also having only half a day of school tomorrow.

–        Johnny      : that’s wonderful

–        Teacher    : We’ll have the other half tomorrow afternoon

–        Johnny      : Why can’t we have both halves tomorrow afternoon?

–        Teacher    : We’ve done enough joking. Let’s talk about holidays now. Mary, why do we celebrate Thanksgiving Day?

–        Mary         : Thanksgiving is a day set aside in honor of the memory of the Pilgrim Fathers. The Pilgrim Fathers were some of the first settlers who came to America. After a period of great suffering. They set aside a day of thanks to the lord for the help he had given them.

–        Johnny      : I quite agree with you

N.   Expression of Denial

  1. Understanding and Expressing denial

*        The following expression can be used to say that something is not correct (denial)

–        I deny that

–        No, it’s not actually

–        that’s not true

–        it isn’t right, is it?

–        Not at all

–        If I may say no, you are mistaken

  1. Dialogue

–        Jimmy      : Sir, did you see the accident yourself?

–        Mr. Ron    : Yes I did.

–        Jimmy      : Now, please tell me what you were doing when the accident happened and what you saw.

–        Mr. Ron    : I was driving behind this car and suddenly I saw his motorcycle shooting out of the side road.

–        Clif            : No, I deny that. It happened just because the driver drove too fast

–        Mr. Ron    : If he had driven too fast he would have killed you

–        Jimmy      : Well, me, all right, sir. Could you guess how fast the driving the car?

–        Mr. Ron    : 35 kilometers per hour

–        Clif            : That’s not true, how did you know?

–        Mr. Ron    : I was behind him all the way along this street. I am old and never drive faster than 35 kilometers per hour

O.   Expression of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

  1. Understanding and Expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction

*        We can show satisfaction using the following expression:

–        I am very pleased/satisfied/happy (that) ……

–        Yes, I like it

–        I can’t complain

–        The + noun (phrase) is enjoyful

*        We can show dissatisfaction using the following expression:

–        I am very unpleased/dissatisfied/unhappy (that) ……

–        No, I don’t like it

–        I complain ………..

–        The + noun (phrase) is boring/dull……..

  1. Dialogue

–        Mr. Todd       : My wife is coming home now. I hear her at the door. Hello, Marry. I want you to meet my friend, Mr.Gray.

–        Mrs. Todd     : How do you do Mr.Gray?

–        Mr. Gray        : How do you do? Mrs. Todd. I’m glad to meet you. Your husband is    showing me your home. It’s very nice.

–        Mrs. Todd     : Thank you. We like it. We enjoy our yard too. We have two gardens at the back; there we grow some flowers and vegetables. Do you want to see our garden?

–        Mr. Gray        : yes, thank you. I like flowers very much. Is the weather good for your garden?

–        Mr. Todd       : Yes, it is very good. In spring we have a lot of rain. Some flowers begin to grow very early.

–        Mr. Gray        : do you have vegetables early too?

–        Mrs. Todd     : Yes, we have a lot vegetable in early summer. It rains very little then. The weather is warm, and the sun shines every day. In autumn the nights are cold.

–        Mr. Gray        : do you like winter weather, Mrs. Todd?

–        Mrs. Todd     : Yes, I’m very satisfied

–        Mr. Todd       : My wife likes three seasons – spring, summer and autumn. She likes to spend a lot of time in her garden.

–        Mr. Gray        : The summer is very hot. I like spring and autumn weather.

–        Mrs. Todd     : Today is a nice day. The sky is clear, the sun is shining and the wind is blowing.

–        Mr. Gray        : I can’t complain. Today it’s really impressive

 P.     Expression of Warning

  1. Understanding and Expressing warning

*        Look out!

*        Be careful!

*        These tablets should be kept out of the reach of children

*        Take care when you …….!

*        Do it carefully!

  1. Dialogue

–        James        : Hi, Kelly. How are you?

–        Kelly        : Hello, James. I’m fine. By the way, where do you want to go?

–        James        : I want to go to supermarket. I want to buy some books and soaps.

–        Kelly        : Do you go there by our motorcycle?

–        James        : Yes, I do. What’s wrong?

–        Kelly        : You must take a helmet and a driving license.

–        James        : Sure.

–        Kelly        : And remember you mustn’t drive so fast. The traffic is so busy. Be careful!

–        James        : Thanks, Kelly.

Q.   Expression of proud

  1. Understanding and Expressing proud

*        I feel proud of ……(noun/pronoun)

*        I’m proud of …….(noun/pronoun)

*        I feel proud that ……(sentence)

  1. Dialogue

–        Ryan         : I feel proud of my sister.

–        Grace        : Why?

–        Ryan         : She has finished her study at UCLA with flying colors.

–        Grace        : It’s strange that she didn’t tell me. By the way, I also received a letter from my brother.

–        Ryan         : How is she? It is good news?

–        Grace        : Yes, he got succeed in his career. He becomes a vice president in his office.

–        Ryan         : it’s wonderful. I’m proud of him.

–        Grace        : Oh, thanks. I’m proud of him too.

Making an Expression

Modal Functions as Expressions

  1. 1.      Possibility (Kemungkinan)

Modal yang mempunyai arti Possibility di bawah ini hanya difungsikan dalam bentuk affirmative (+) dan interrogative (?):

Adapun modal yang digunakan adalah:

No

Modal

Prosentase Possibility

Meaning

Tenses

1

Will

100%

Pasti

S. Ps + Ps. Con.

S. Ps + Pr. Con.

S. F + F. Con.

2

Must

95%

Pasti

S. Ps + Ps. Con.

 

S. Ps + Pr. Con.

3

Should

90%

Kemungkinan Besar

S. Ps + Ps. Con.

 

S. Ps + Pr. Con.

4

Ought to

5

May

50%

Mungkin

S. Ps + Ps. Con.

 

S. Ps + Pr. Con.

S. F + F. Con.

6

Might

7

Could

8

Can

 

Example: a. Dimana Ann sekarang? (Where’s Ann?)

b. mungkin dia di kantin. (She may be in canteen)

The sentence “She may be in canteen” has same meaning with:

Perhaps She is in canteen

It’s possible that She is in canteen

May be She is in canteen

Note:

May be pada kalimat “She may be in canteen”, tulisannya tidak dirangkai, maka May tesebut meruakan modal, sedangkan maybe pada kalimat ”Maybe She is in canteen” dirangkai, maka itu sebagai adverb saja.

Another example: Joe has three big houses, so He must be very rich (Joe punya tiga rumah yang besar jadi dia pasti kaya)

2.      Impossibility (Ketidakmungkinan)

Modal yang mempunyai arti Possibility di bawah ini hanya difungsikan dalam bentuk Negative (-) dan Negative Interrogative (-?).

Adapun modal yang digunakan adalah:

No

Modal

Prosentase Possibility

Meaning

Tenses

1

Can’t

Couldn’t

99%

Tidak Mungkin

S. Past.

Ps. Continuous

S. Present

Pr. Continuous

S. Future

F. Continuous

2

Mustn’t

95%

Pasti Tidak

3

Mayn’t

Mightn’t

50%

Mungkin Tidak

 

Example:

  • Julianne   :   “Mom, I’m hungry!” (Ma, aku lapar!)
    • Mother              : “You can’t be hungry because you have just had  breakfast (kamu tidak mungkin lapar karma kamu sudah sarapan)

Note:

The sentence “You can’t be hungry” has same meaning with “It’s impossible for you to be hungry

3.      Whishes (Pengharapan/Doa)

Modal yang digunakan adalah May yang diletakkan sevbelum subjek. Memang sekilas miri dengan bentuk kalimat tanya (interrogative), bedanya pada fungsi ini kalimatnya diakhiri dengan titik karena berupa kalimat affirmative (pernyataan postif).

Form:

Verbal                        May + Subject + V bare infinitive + (Object)

Nominal                    May + Subject + Be + 3 Complement (Noun, Adjective, Adverb)

Bentuk kalimat pada fungsi ini biasanya berbentuk kalimat Positive (+). Tetapi jika berbentuk kalimat negative (-) maka tinggal menambah “Not” sebelum Verb Bare Infinitive.

Example:

May God always bless you (semoga Tuhan memberkatimu)

May you not forget me (semoga kamu tidak melupakanku)

May He always be with you (semoga dia selau bersamamau)

May it not rain tonight (semoga nanti malam tidak hujan)

May the not be there now (semoga mereka tidak disana sekarang)

When you come tonight, may my Mom not eat (saat kamu datang nanti malam, semoga Mama sedang makan)

Note:

Makna modal ini adalah semoga atau mudah-mudahan. Modal pada fungsi ini bertenses Simple Present (contoh No. 1, 2 dan 3), Present Continuous (contoh No. 4), Simple Future (contoh No. 5) dan Future Continuous (contoh No. 6).

4.      Ability (Kemampuan)

Modal yang digunakan pada funsi ini adalah modal murni Can, Could, dan Similar Expression of Modal yaitu Be Able To dan ketiganya bermakna bisa, dapat atau mampu.

Bentuk kalimatnya bisa berupa kalimat Affirmative (+), Negative (-), Interrogative (?) dan Negative Interrogative (-?).

Adapun tenses yang digunakan yaitu:

  1. Can digunakan untuk tenses sebagaimana table berikut:

Nama tenses

Contoh

Simple Present Mary can help you everyday
Present Continuous Mary can do it well now
Simple Future Mary can finish it tonight
Future Continuous Mary can type it tomorrow morning

Pola:

(Verbal)          : S + Can+ Vbi

(Nominal)      : S + Can+ Be + 3 Complement

  1. Could digunakan untuk tenses berikut:

Nama tenses

Contoh

Simple Past They could answer my question last night
Past Continuous They translated what you could say at that time

Pola:

(Verbal)          : S + Could + Vbi

(Nominal)      : S + Could + Be + 3 Complement

  1. Be Able To digunakan untuk semua tenses
  • She will be able to help you tonight (Simple Future)
  • She is able to drive well now (Present Continuous)
  • She was able to clean the room herself yesterday (Simple Past)
  • She has been able to finish the work since Her Mom came (Present Perfect)

Pola:

(Verbal)          : S + Be + Able to + Vbi

(Nominal)      : S + Be + Able to + Be + 3 Complement

Note:

Untuk tenses Future lebih memakai “be able to”, contoh: We will be able to solve the problem as soon as possible”. Untuk tenses Present lebih baik menggunakan “Can” dari pada “be able to”, contoh: “He can drive the car every week”. Sedang dalam tenses Past antara ”Could” atau  “be able to” sama bisa digunakan. Dan dalam tenses Perfect hanya  “be able to” yang bisa digunakan, contoh:

  • She hasn’t been able to walk since the accident

(Dia belum bisa berjalan sejak kecelakaan itu)

  • She sai that She had been able to write a book once a week

(Dia bilang bahwa dia sudah bisa menulis sebuah buku seminggu sekali)

5.      Necessity (Keharusan)

Modal yang digunakan adalah Must artinya harus. Must hanya digunakan dalam kalimat Affirmative (+) dan Interrogative (?), sedang untuk kalimat Negative (-) digunakan “Needn’t”.

Adapun Similar Expression dari Must adalah Have to atau Have got to yang kedunya dapat digunakan dalam semua bentuk kalimat baik Affirmative (+), Negative (-), Interrogative (?) ataupun Negative Interrogative (-?).

Perhatikan kolom berikut!

Bentuk Kalimat

tenses

Present/Future

Past

(+)

S + Must + Vbi S + Had to + Vbi

(-)

S + Needn’t + Vbi S + didn’t + have to + Vbi (American)
S + Hadn’t to + Vbi (British)

(?)

Must + S + Vbi + ?

Did + S + have to + Vbi + ? (American)
Had + S +  to + Vbi + ? (British)

(-?)

Needn’t + S + Vbi + ?

Didn’t + S + have to + Vbi + ? (American)
Hadn’t + S +  to + Vbi + ? (British)

Bentuk negative untuk fungsi Necessity yang menggunakan modal Must adalah Needn’t sedangkan bentuk tenses past-nya menggunakan Similar Expression of Modal ‘Had to’ (berasal dari bentuk Present ‘Have to’).

Tenses dan bentuk kalimat untuk modal ‘Have to’

Bentuk Kalimat

tenses

Present/Future

Future

(+)

S + have to + Vbi

S + Had to + Vbi (USA)
S + will + have to + Vbi (British)

(-)

S + don’t/doesn’t + have to + Vbi (USA)

S + don’t/doesn’t + have to + Vbi (USA)

S + haven’t to + Vbi (British)

S + won’t + have to + Vbi (British)

(?)

Do/Does + S + have to + Vbi + ? (USA)

Do/Does + S + have to + Vbi + ? (USA)

have to + S + Vbi + ? (British)

Will + S + have to + S + Vbi + ? (British)

(-?)

Don’t/Doesn’t + S + have to + Vbi + ? (USA)

Don’t/Doesn’t + S + have to + Vbi + ? (USA)

Haven’t + S + to + Vbi + ? (British)

Won’t + S +  have to + Vbi + ? (British)

Have Got To

Bentuk kalimat

Pattern/pola

(+) S + Have got to + Vbi
(-) S + haven’t got to + Vbi
(?) Have + S + got to + Vbi + ?
(-?) Haven’t + S + got to + Vbi + ?

Note:

Penggunaan Must, Have to, Have got to

Dalam American English “Must” digunakan untuk keharusan yang sangat penting Strong Obligation artinya keharusan yang benar-benar harus dilakukan dan tidak bisa ditawar lagi. Sedangkan Have to keharusannya lebih lemah, bila dibandingkan dengan Must.

Example:

  • I must go now (Saya harus pergi sekarang, tidak boleh tidak)
  • I have to go now (Saya harus pergi sekarang, tapi bisa ditawar)

Dalam British English ‘Must’ digunakan untuk menyatakan keharusan karena unsure internal pembicara (speaker) atau kemauan pembicara. Sedangkan ‘have to’ menunjukkan keharusan karena unsure eksternal pembicara (keharusan yang berasal dari luar pembicara). Coba bandingkan 2 unsur kalimat di bawah ini:

  •  I must go to the meeting because I’ll get some informations. (Kepergiannya dalam rapat itu karena keinginannya mendapat informasi)
  • I have to go to the meeting because my boss oared me to attend it. (kepergiannya dalam rapat karena atasannya yang mengharuskannya)

Have got to’ lebih sering dipakai dalam bahasa informal dan jarang sekali dipakai dalam bahasa formal. ‘Have got to’ tidak digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang berulang-ulang.

Kalimat “aku harus pergi sekarang” baru boleh memakai ‘Have got to’ menjadi “I Have got to go now” yang biasanya disingkat “I gotta go now” (have dihilangkan).

6.       Prohibition (Larangan)

Modal yang digunakan adalah Mustn’t yang berarti ‘tidak boleh’. Dan hanya digunakan dalam bentuk kalimat Negative (-). Tenses yang digunakan hanya present dan future.

Pola:

(Verbal)       : S + Mustn’t + Vbi

(Nominal)   : S + Mustn’t + Be + 3 Complement

Example:

  • You mustn’t swim in the river, it’s so dangerous
  • They mustn’t come late in our class tomorrow because the lecturer is very disciplined

 7.      Advisability (Nasehat)

            Modal yang digunakan yaitu:

  1. Should (seharusnya, sebaiknya)
  2. Ought to (seharusnya, lebih baik)
  3. Had better (Sebaiknya, lebih baik)

Bentuk kalimat Should, ought to, dan Had better

  1. (+) S + Should + V bare infinitive

(-)  S + Shouldn’t + V bare infinitive

(?)  Should + S + V bare infinitive + ?

  1. (+) S + Ought to + V bare infinitive

(-)  S + Ought not to  + V bare infinitive

(?)  Ought to + S + V bare infinitive + ?

  1. (+) S + Had better + V bare infinitive

(-)  S + Had better + Not + V bare infinitive

(?)  Had better + S + V bare infinitive + ?

Should dan Ought to digunakan untuk menyatakan nasehat dan memberikan satu solusi. Sedangkan Had better digunakan untuk nasehat yang lebih keras dan mengandung akibat yang negative (ancaman) bila saran itu tidak dilaksanakan.

Example:

  • Jane           : “I haven’t understood this lesson”

Peter         : “You Should Study harder” atau “You ought to study harder”

  • Jane           : “I haven’t understood this lesson”

Peter         : “You had better Study harder or you won’t pass the exam”

Note:

Should digunakan dalam formal speaking sedangkan Ought to digunakan dalam informal speaking. Dan Had better lebih umum dalam speaking dari pada writing serta hanya digunakan dalam tenses Present dan Future.

Ketika lampau (past), Should bermakna penyesalan. Polanya ialah: Should have V3. demikian halnya dengan Ought to, bentuk lampaunya ialah menggunakan pola: Ought to have V3 dan juga mengandung arti penyesalan.

Example:

Lindsay said: “I didn’t pass the exam yesterday, I should have stdied before” (aku tidak lulus ujian kemarin, seharusnya aku belajar terlebih dahulu sebelum ujian itu).

8.      Suggestion (Saran)

Modal yang digunakan pada fungsi ini adalah Could (bukan bentuk past dari Can), dan bentuk past-ialah Could have V3. fungsi ini mirip dengan fungsi modal advisability Should. Bedanya Could memberikan alternatif pilihan (nasehat yang berisi lebih dari satu solusi).

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Could + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Could + be + 3 Complement

Compare This Example:

  • Eva           : I’m having trouble in math class

Halley      : You should talk to your teacher

  • Eva           : I’m having trouble in math class

Halley      : You could talk to your teacher or you could ask to Andrew to help you with your math lesson or I could try to help you.

Mirip dengan Should bentuk past dari Could juga bermakna penyesalan.

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Could + have + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Could + have + be + 3 Complement

Perhatikan dan bandingkan cotoh berikut:

  • Eva                                : I Failed my math class

Halley                           : You should have talked to your teacher, so you   have got some help from him during the term. (seharusnya kamu bilang ke gurumu jadi dia bisa membantumu dalam mata pelajaran itu)

  • Eva                                : I failed my math class

Halley                           : You could have talked to your teacher or you  could have asked to Andrew to help you with your math lesson or I could have tried to help you. (seharusnya kamu bilang ke gurumu, atau kamu minta bantuan Andrew atau seharusnya aku mencoba bantu kamu).

9.      Expectation (Pengharapan)

Untuk fungsi ini, modal yang dipakai ialah similar expression of modal be to dan be supposed to.

Be to bermakna harus (setara dengan Must). Sedang be supposed to bermakna seharusnya (setara dengan Should). Be to lebih keras maknanya dari pada be supposed to.

Penggunaan be to dan be supposed to ialah salah satunya sebagai harapan seseorang akan suatu kejadian yang sudah terjadwal.

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Be + to + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Be + to + be + 3 Complement

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Be Suppoused to + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Be Suppoused to + be + 3 Complement

Example:

  • The office is to open at 10 o’clock
  • The office is supposed to open at 10 o’clock

Pada contoh di atas, si pembocara mengharapkan kantor itu buka pada jam 10 karena itu memang jadwalnya. Pada contoh (a) harapan itu lebih kuat bila dibandingkan dengan contoh (b).

Note:

  1. Perbedaan Must dan Be to

Must bermakna harus karena keinginan dari dalam dirinya sendiri (internal factor), sedangkan be to bermakna harus karena keinginan atau harapan orang lain (external factor).

Example:

  • I must study hard now, I will get exam tomorrow, I want to pass it and get high score. (saya harus belajar giat besok, karena saya ada ujian dan saya ingin mendapat nilai yang bagus)
  • I am to study hard, my mother force me to do it, she wants me to get high score. (saya harus belajar giat, Mama emaksaku untuk belajar karena dia ingin aku dapat nilai bagus.
  1. Perbedaan Should dan be supposed to

Should bermakna seharusnya karena ingin keinginan pembicara sendiri (internal factor), sedangkan be suppoused to bermakna seharusnya karena keinginan atau harapan orang lain (external factor).

Example:

  • I should finish this work soon, so I can do other works after this. (saya seharusnya menyelesaikan tugas ini segera sehingga saya bisa mengerjakan tugas lain setelah ini).
  • I’m suppoused to finish this work soon, my teacher ordered me to do it soon. (saya seharusnya menyelesaikan tugas ini segera karena guruku meminta untuk menyelesaikannya secepatnya).

10.   Preference (Pilihan atau Kesukaaan)

Modal yang digunakan untuk fungsi ini ialah Would rather yang artinya lebih suka.

Pola:   S + Would rather + Vbi + than + Vbi

Example:

  • George would rather study English than go to Cinema.

(George lebih suka belajar bahasa inggris dari pada pergi ke Bioskop)

untuk menyatakan kesukaan, kita juga bisa menggunakan Prefer atau like sebagaimana penjelasan berikut ini.

Pola:

(Verbal)    S + Prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing

(Nominal)            S + Prefer + Being + 3C + to + Being + 3C

(Verbal)    S + Like + V-ing + better than + V-ing

(Nominal)            S + like + Being + 3C + to + Being + 3C

Example:

  • Erica prefers swimming to climbing mountain
  • Jessica likes hunting pizza better than hunting cake

Note:

Would rather hanya bisa diikuti oleh Verb Bare Infinitive, sedangkan Prefer dan Like bisa langsung diikuti oleh noun.

Example:

  • I would rather drink coffee than tea
  • I prefer coffee than tea
  • I like coffee than tea

Bentuk past untuk would rather ialah: would rather have V3 tetapi hal itu jarang sekali dipakai. Sedangkan bentuk past untuk prefer ialah preferred dan like ialah liked.

Example:

  • I went by sea but I’d rather have gone by air.

(dulu saya pergi dengan menggunakan kapal laut, tetapi sebenarnya saya lebih suka bepergian dengan pesawat).

  • She preferred jogging to swimming
  • She liked jogging better than swimming.

11.  Request (Permintaan)

Modal yang digunakan pada fungsi ini ialah:

  1. Untuk subject orang pertama (I & We), maka modal yang digunakan ialah:

May

Might                               Formal Speaking

Bolehkah Saya atau kami….?

Can                                   Informal Speaking

Could

Pola:

(Verbal)          Modal + S + Vbi + ?

(Nominal)      Modal + S + Be + 3 Complement + ?

Note:

Might untuk menyatakan permintaan yang sangat halus, tetapi jarang dipakai. Sedangkan Could juga dipakai untuk menyatakan permintaan secara halus tetapi Could umum dipakai.

Example:

  • May I have your name? (bolehkah saya tahu namamu?)
  • Might we call at your home? (bolehkah kami mampir ke rumah anda?)
  • Can I take it for you? (bolehkah saya mengambilnya untuk kamu?)
  1. Untuk subject orang kedua (you), modal yang digunakan ialah:

Will                                  Formal Speaking

Would

Maukah/sudikah anda…….?

Can                                   Informal Speaking

Could

Pola:

(Verbal)          Modal + S + Vbi + ?

(Nominal)      Modal + S + Be + 3 Complement + ?

Example:

  • Will you come to my party? (maukah anda dating ke pesta saya?)
  • Would you pass me the pen? (naukah anda mengambilkan pen itu untuk saya?)
  • Can you drive me, please? (maukah anda mengantar saya?)
  • Could you open the door? (maukah anda membukakan pintu?)

Note:

Could dan Would digunakan menyatakan permintaan yang halus dan keduanya umum dipakai.

Would mempunyai beberapa variasi bentuk, yaitu:

1)      Would you like to write me please?

2)      Would you mind writing me please?

3)      Would you mind if I called you at your home?

Would you mind artinya ‘apakah anda tidak keberatan……? Dan kalimat di belakang If yang diawali dengan Would you mind berbentuk simple past.

12.  Permission (Izin)

Fungsi ini menggunakan modal Can (boleh) dan May (boleh), yang digunakan untuk tenses present dan future. Sedangkan untuk modal Could dan Might digunakan untuk tenses past (dan hanya berlaku dalam konteks Direct-Indirect speech), yang artinya boleh, dapat atau bisa. Modal tersebut di atas mempunyai similar expression of modal yaitu: be allowed to (boleh, data, tau bisa).

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Modal + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Modal + Be + 3 Complement

Example:

Untuk present dan future

  • I can take a day off whenever I want atau,
  • I may take a day off whenever I want

(contoh di atas sama artinya dengan ‘I’m allowed to take a day off whenever I want’ <saya diijinkan mengambil cuti kapanpun saya mau>).

Note:

Peredaan antara Can dan Might

Can lebih umum digunakan dari pada May. Can menunjukkan bahwa perbuatan itu diperbolehkan dan secara aturan juga benar. Tetapi untuk may perbuatan itu diperbolehkan, tetapi secara aturan, perbuatan tersebut belum tentu diperbolehkan.

Example:

  • You can park here (‘anda boleh parkir disini’ karena tempat ini memang disediakan untuk tempat parkir. Dalam artian secara aturan diperbolehkan)
  • You may park here (‘anda boleh parker disni’ walaupun tempat ini bukan tempat parkir. Dalam artian secara aturan baku sebenarnya tidak diperolehkan)

Other examples:

  • He said, “you can borrow it” Direct Speech

He said that I could borrow it. Indirect Speech

  • She said, “You may take it” Direct Speech

She said that I might take it. Indirect Speech

Pada tenses perfect kita tidak bisa menggunakan modal murni. Untuk tenses perfect kita hanya bisa mengunakan similar expression of modal yaitu: be allowed to, Example:

Since a child, she hasn’t been allowed to ride a bike

(sejak kecil, dia belum dierbolehkan naik sepeda)

 13.  Semi modal

Yang dimaksud dengan semi modal ialah: “Need dan Dare”. Disebut semi modal karena disatu sisi kedudukannya bisa sebagai ordinary verb (kata kerja utama), sedangkan di sisi lain bisa menjadi auxiliary (kata kerja Bantu).

A.  Need

1)      Need ketika berposisi sebagai kata benda (noun), diartikan dengan kenutuhan.

Example:

  • Our educational needs have changed (kebutuhan-kebutuhan pendidikan kita sudah berubah)
  • Our needs are few (kebutuhan-ebutuhan kita sedikit)

2)      Need juga bisa berposisi sebagai ordinary verb (kata kerja utama) yang artinya membutuhkan atau memerlukan.

Example:

  • You need invite him (kamu perlu mengundangnya)

3)      Seain itu, Need juga bisa berposisi sebagai modal auxiliary. Untuk fungsi ini biasanya Need berbentuk negative. Lihat pembahasan modal fungsi necessity (keharusan) yaitu bentuk negative dari Must dalam tenses Present dan Future (Needn’t).

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Need/Needn’t + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Need/Needn’t + Be + 3 Complement

Example:

  • You needn’t help me, I can do it by myself

(kamu tidak perlu meolong saya, saya bisa mengerjakannya sendiri)

  • Need I come tomorrow? (haruskah saya dating besok?)

B.   Dare

1)      Dare bermakna ‘tantangan’ ketika berposisi sebagai noun.

Example:

  • Can you take a dare (apakah kamu bisa menerima tantangan?)

2)      Dare bermakna ‘berani’ ketika berposisi sebagai ordinary verb.

Example:

  • He dare to say the truth (dia berai mengatakan yang benar)
  • She doesn’t dare to go out at night by herself (dia tidak berani keluar malam sendirian)
  • They didn’t dare to face it (mereka tidak berani menghadapinya)
  • We dare to tell him the news (kami berani membritahu berita itu)

3)      Dare juga berposisi sebagai modal auxiliary. Ketika berfungsi sebagai modal Dare diartikan ‘berani’ (sama dengan makna ordinary-nya).

Pola:

(Verbal)          S + Dare/Daren’t + Vbi

(Nominal)      S + Dare/Daren’t + Be + 3 Complement

Example:

  •  Dare she tell him the truth? (apakah dia berani mengatakan kepadanya secara jujur?)
  • I daren’t open the door (saya tidak berai membuka pintu)
  •  We daren’t run across the road (kami tidak berani menyeberang jalan)

Note:

Dare lebih umum digunakan dalam bentuk negative dalam tenses present. Dalam British English, Daren’t bermakna sama dengan ‘afraid of’.

Jadi untuk kalimat: “I daren’t open the door” sama artinya dengan “I’m afraid of opening the door”, atau kalimat: “We daren’t run across the road” sama artinya dengan “We’re afraid of running across the road”.

14.  Habitual Action

  1. Habitual action in the past

Untuk menyatakan kebiasaan di waktu lampau yang sekarang tidak dilakukan lagi kita bisa menggunakan modal Would (dulu terbiasa), dan mempunyai similar Expression of Modal yaitu: Used to (dulu terbiasa atau dulu pernah).

Pola:

(Verbal)          (+) S + Would + Vbi

(-)  S + Wouldn’t + Vbi

(?)  Would + S + Vbi + ?

(Nominal)      (+) S + Would + Be + 3 Complement

(-)  S + Wouldn’t + Be + 3C

(?)  Would + S + Be + 3C + ?

Pola:

(Verbal)          (+) S + Used to + Vbi

(-)  S + Usedn’t to + Vbi (British)/ S + didn’t + Used to + Vbi

(American)

(?)  Used  + S + to + Vbi + ?

(Nominal)      (+) S + Used to + Be + 3 Complement

(-)  S + Usedn’t to + Be + 3C (British)/ S + didn’t +  Used to + Be +

3C (American)

(?)  Used + S + to + Be + 3C + ?

Example:

  • I would play in the rain when I was Child
  • I used to play in the rain when I was Child

Would dalam pola ini hanya bisa digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan secara berulang-ulang (kebiasaan di masa lampau). Sehingga modal would dalam fungsi ini hanya bisa bermakna dulu terbiasa.

            Example:

  • When I lived in San Francisco, I would go to movie every Saturday night. (dulu ketika saya tinggal di San Francisco, Saya terbiasa nonton Bioskop setiap malam Minggu).

Would dalam pola ini sama artinya dengan Used to tetapi sealin bermakna dulu terbiasa, used to juga bisa diartikan dengan dulu pernah.

      Example:

  • I used to live in America (Saya dulu pernah tinggal di America)

Would dan Used to” hanya bertenses Past, dan bentuk negative dari Would  ialah Wouldn’t, sedangkan bentuk negative dari Used to ialah “didn’t used to” (America) atau “Usedn’t to” (British).

Example:

  • I usedn’t to get up early (British)
  • I didn’t used to get up early (America)
  • I wouldn’t get up early

Ada beberapa bentuk lain untuk menyatakan habitual action in the past (kebiasaan yang berlangsung di masa lampau), yakni:

a)      S + Adverb of Frequency + V2 (Past Form) + (O)

b)     S + be (was/were) + used to + V-ing + (O)

c)      S + be (was/were) + accustomed to + V-ing + (O)

Pola pada “be used to + V-ing dan be accustomed to + V-ing” bisa ber-tenses past (kebiasaan pada masa lalu yang sekarang tidak dilakukan lagi, dengan catatan to be yang dipakai ialah ‘Was/Were’). Dan bisa ber-tenses Present untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang masih berlangsung sampai sekarang, bila to be yang digunakan ialah ‘Am/Is/Are’.

Example:

  • I usually went to movie every Saturday night
  • I was used to going to movie every Saturday night
  • I was accustomed to going to movie every Saturday night

To be pada ‘Be used to + V-ing dan be accustomed to + V-ing’ bisa digantikan dengan Get untuk tenses present dan Got untuk tenses Past, menjadi:

      Example:

  • I get used to going to movie every Saturday night (Present)
  • I got used to going to movie every Saturday night (Past)
  1. Habitual action in the present

Untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang berlangsung sampai sekarang, kita bisa menggunakan pola sebagai berikut:

a)      S + Adverb of Frequency + Vi (Simple Form) + (O)

b)     S + be (Am/Is/Are) + used to + V-ing + (O)

c)      S + (Am/Is/Are) + be accustomed to + V-ing + (O)

d)     S + get + used to + V-ing + (O)

e)      S + get + accustomed to + V-ing + (O)

Example:

  • I usually go to movie every Saturday night
  • I am used to going to movie every Saturday night
  • I am accustomed to going to movie every Saturday night
  • I get used to going to movie every Saturday night (Present)
  • I get accustomed to going to movie every Saturday night (Past)

MISCELLANEOUS EXPRESSIONS

 

Dalam bahasan ini diuraikan berbagai macam kata dan ungkapan yang sering dijumpai dalalm bacaan maupun percakapan sehari-hari. Kata-kata tersebut seringkali membingungkan karena mereka mempunyai arti yang hamper sama; dan ungkapan –ungkapan tersebut biasanya hanya dapat dipahami bila kita tangkap sebagai suatu pengertian tersendiri. Kita biasanya tidak dapat memikirkannya seperti pengertian-pengertian yang lain.

Oleh karena itu, cara yang paling mudah untuk menguasainya adalah dengan menghafal dan memahami berbagai macam kata dan ungkapan tersebut sebagi suatu kesatuan pengertian dengan jalan lebih sering mengunakannya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

A.    Other, Another and the others

kata other, another dan others dapat diartikan dengan: yang lain atau lainnya. Ketiga kata tersebut sangat mudah membingungkan. Maka untuk menentukan bagaimana menggunakannya dengan tepat masing-masing kata tersebut harus diperhatikan empat hal.

1)      Jika kata itu singular (tunggal) atau plural (jamak)

2)      Jika kata itu definite – the – atau indefinite – a – (tak tenntu)

3)      Jika kata itu berfungsi sebagai adjective yang menerangkan noun atau senantiasa bersama dengan noun

4)      Jika kata itu berfungsi sebagai pronoun yang dapat berdiri sendiri

Perhatikan table berikut ini:

Category

Singular

Plural

Indefinite

I have another book (adj.) I have other books (adj.)
I have another (pronoun) I have others (pronoun)

Definite

I have the other book (adj.) I have the other books (adj.)
I have the other (pronoun) I have the others (pronoun)

Perhatikan bahwa another digunakan untuk menunjuk kepada an indefinite (tak tentu) dan dengan kata benda tunggal (singular). Dan other hanya digunakan sebagai plural pronoun yang tidak bersama dengan noun (dapat berdiri sendiri). Sedangkan other dapat untuk semuanya.

Perhatikan conto berikut:

  1. I have three books, two are mine is yours, the other book is yours (the other is yours)
  2. I have 5 computers, three are mine, the other computers are yours (the others are yours)
  3. If you ate still thirsty, I’ll make another pot at coffee

B.     Like, Alike and Unlike

Ketiga kata ini (Like, alike and unlike) sangat mudah membingungkan karena kata tersebut kelihatan sama dan mempunyai banyak cara penggunaan. Ada empat penggunaan yang lazim, yaitu:

  1. Alike berfungsi sebagai adjective (kata sifat)

Dalam hal ini, kata Alike mempunyai arti sama dengan similar (serupa)

Contoh:

Scott and Logan are alike or Scott and Logan are similar

These suits are alike or these suits are alike

  1. Like dan unlike berfungsi sebagai preposition (kata depan)

Contoh:

John is like Ryan

Ryan is unlike Raymond

Dalam kedua contoh tersebut, like berarti: similar to (seperti) dan unlike berarti kebalikan like (tidak seperti). Dan pada kedua contoh tersebut like dan unlike berfungsi sebagai proposition yang berarti bahwa masing-masing kata tersebut harus selalu diikuti object.

  1.  Like dan Unlike digunakan dengan cara berikut

like Ryan, John is tall

unlike Raymond, Ryan is so aggressive

  1. Cara penggunaan yang tidak umum (jarang)

Contoh:

Cristina and Jenny work in a like manner

Any father work done in a like fashion will be rejected

Dalam contoh ini, like berarti: similar (serupa) dan berfungsi sebagi adjective yang mensifati kata benda; maka bila digunakan denagn cara seperti contoh tersebut like selalu bersama dengan kata benda yang disifati.

C.    No dan Not

Menggunakan tidak dalam bahasa inggris ada 2 cara, yaitu No dan Not, namun penggunaannya dalam kalimat berbeda-beda. No harus bergandengan tepatnya dengan (sebelum) Noun.

Contoh:

I have no friend in Australia

She has no money to buy the book

He has no time to come here

No cigarette is completely harmless

No tourist came to Jogjakarta last week

Dan No juga bisa diganti dengan not any dan artinya tetap tidak berubah, jadi semua yang dicontohkan di atas dapat dirubah menjadi: I have not any friend atau I have not any time dan seterusnya.

Not harus selalu bergandengan (tempatnya) sesudah auxiliary verb dan tidak dapat berdiri sendiri.

Contoh:

I can not go out today because I have no money

They’re not studying now

He will not come here again

She doesn’t give me anything to drink

D.    Else = yang lain, Or else = if not = Otherwise = jika tidak

Kata Else sering ditambahkan pada kata-kata seperti Someone sehingga menjadi someone else, anything – menjadi anything else, anyone else, where else dan sebagainya, sebagai pengganti dari kata some other person, any other person.

Contoh:

Someone else (some other person) will take care of you

Was there anything else (any other thing) that you need?

Else juga dapat menggantikan kata if not atau otherwise yang berarti “jika tidak”.

Contoh:

We must hurry, or else we will be late

He’d better wait here, or else he’ll miss her

Put your coat on, or else you will catch cold

E.     Also, Too, As Well

Also dapat ditempatkan dimana saja dalam kalimat positif (affirmative sentence) dan kalimat Tanya (interrogative sentence), sedangkan dalam kalimat negative (negative sentence) menggunkanan either.

Contoh:

I can do that also

I also can do that

I can also do that

I can not do that either

As well dan too hanya dapat ditempatkan pada akhir atau pada bagian akhir suatu kalimat. Dan as well lebih sering dipakai dalam pergaulan sehari-hari.

Contoh:

I can do that too

I can do that as well

We have been there too

We have been there as well

F.      So dan such

So dipakai tanpa berbarengan dengan Noun (hanya bersamaan dengan adjective saja) atau bersamaan dengan Adverb, sedangkan Such digunakan bersamaan dengan Adjective dan Noun.

Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut:

She is so stupid

She read such a stupid story

He’s difficult to understand because he speaks so quickly

Dalam pemakiannya So dan Such membuat arti dari adjective (kata sifat) menjadi lebih kuat (more stronger).

Contoh:

It’s lovely day, isn’t it? It’s so warm (really warm)

We enjoyed our holiday, we had such a good time (a really good time)

Untuk mudah dalam mengingat dan membedakan antara So dan Such, perhatikanlah dan bandingkan contoh berikut:

I like Tom and Ann. They’re so nice

I like Tom and Ann. They’re such nice people

Kita juga bisa menggunakan So dan Such dengan bentuk ini So …… that …… atau Such ……that ……, dan that tersebut juga bisa dihilangkan.

Contoh:

I was so tired that I went to bed at seven o’clock

She worked so hard that she made her self ill

It was such lovely weather that we spent all the whole day in the garden

The book was so good that I couldn’t put it down

It was such a good book that I couldn’t put it down

Note:

Kita mengatakan So long tapi such a long time; So far tapi such a long way; so many atau So much tapi such a lot of.

Contoh:

I haven’t seen her for so long that I have forgotten what he looks like (or….. such along tome….)

I didn’t know you lived so far from the city centre. (or …… such a long way from ……)

Why did you buy so much food? (or ….. such a lot of food?)

G.    Enough dan Too

  1. Posisi Enough

Ketika bersamaan dengan Noun, maka posisi enough adalah sebelum Noun. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:

He didin’t get the job because he wasn’t experienced enough (bukan enough experienced)

You won’t pass the exam if you don’t work hard enough

She can’t get married yet. She’s not old enough

Sedangkan jika bersamaan dengan Adjective atau adverb maka posisinya adalah sesudah kedua kata tersebut. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:

He didin’t get the job because he didn’t have enough experience

I’d like to go on holiday but I haven’t got enough money

Some of us had to sit on the floor because there weren’t enough chairs

Dan kita juga bisa menggunakan Enough sendirian yang letaknya adalah final position (di akhir kalimat).

Contoh:

I’ll lend you much money if you haven’t got enough

  1. Posisi Too

Too hanya bisa bersamaan dengan adjective (kata sifat) dan adverb (kata keterangan) saja. Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini:

Let’s get a taxi, it’s too far to walk

He spoke too quickly for us to understand

Note:

Sesudah enough dan too, kita bisa mengabungkannya dengan kata for someone/for something:

      Contoh:

I haven’t got enough money for a holiday

He wasn’t experienced enough for the job

This shirt is too big for me. I need a smaller size

api kita tidak bisa menggunakan enough/too …… for doing something. Karena hal tersebut jarang dipakai. Sedang gantinya ialah menggunakan To + infinitive sesudah kedua kata tersebut. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:

I haven’t got enough money to go on holiday

He wasn’t experienced enough to do the job

This shirt is too big to wear. I need a smaller size

Let’s get a taxi, it’s too far to walk

He spoke too quickly for us to understand

H.    Again, any more, any longer, no longer dan no more

Ketiga kata tersebut memiliki arti yang sama yaitu: lagi, tetapi mempunyai cara penggunaan yang berbeda. Again digunakan untuk affirmative (kalimat positif) dan interrogative (kalimat Tanya), sedangkan any more dan any longer digunakan untuk kalimat negative dan ntuk posisinya selalu terletak di akhir kalimat (final position).

Contoh:

Mary doesn’t live here any more

He promised to come here again

Rona isn’t working in this office any longer

Rena won’t come back into her boyfriend’s life

Sedangkan penggunaan no longer dan no more keduanya digunakan untuk kalimat positif (affirmative) dengan makna negative dan posisi dari keduanya ialah di tengah-tengah kalimat. Ada perbedaan penggunaan antara no longer dan no more yaitu: no longer digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu ungkapan negative yang berkaitan dengan waktu sedangkan no more digunakan untuk menyatakan kuantitas atau tingkatan.

Contoh:

She no longer live in Jakarta (she doesn’t live in Jakarta any more)

Rona no longer studies at University

There’s no more bread

He is no more genius than I am

I have no more time to wait

I.       Although/though/even though/even dan in spite of/despite

Penggunaan dalam kalimat baik Although, though, atau even though semuanya jatuh sebelum sebuah kalimat (sentence). Sedangkan in spite dan despite jatuh sebelum Noun, pronoun seperti: this, that, what etc. atau V-ing.

Perhatikan dan bandingkan contoh-contoh berikut ini:

Although he smokes 40 cigarettes a day, she is quite fit

We enjoy our holiday though it rained a lot

I didn’t get the job even though I had all the necessary qualifications

In spite of smoking 40 cigarettes a day, she is quite fit

We enjoy our holiday despite of rain

Despite what I said last night, I still love you

I’m not tired in spite of working hard

Note:

Kita bisa menggunakan in spite dan despite kata the fact (that) ……dan sesudah kata gabungan tersebut harus berbentuk kalimat (sentence).

Contoh:

in spite of the fact (that) I’m tired, I couldn’t sleep

She’s quite fit despite the fact (that) she smokes 40 cigarettes a day  

Dalam pembicaraan sehari-hari (common spoken) dalam bahasa inggris, though bisa diletakkan di akhir kalimat.

Contoh:

The house isn’t very nice. I like the garden though (but I like the garden)

I see him everyday but I’ve never spoken to him though (but I’ve never spoken to him)

Dan untuk makna even though lebih kuat (more stronger) dari pada although, jadi even though digunakan bersamaan dengan kalimat yang diberi penjelasan tentang kesungguhan dari arti kalimat terssebut.

Contoh:

Even though I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep     

J.       Even

Even digunakan untuk menejlaskan sesuatu yang tidak biasa atau mengejutkan. Lihat contoh berikut:

Our foot ball team lost yesterday. We all played badly. Bill is our bestplayer but yesterday even Bill played badly

Kita mengatakan even Bill karna dia pemain yang baik dan tidak biasanya dia bermain jelek.

Mengenai posisi even, Even diletakkan bersamaan dengan verb di tengah-tengah kalimat. Contoh:

Don has traveled all over the world, he has even been to the Antarctic (it’s especially unusual to go to the Antarctic, so he must have traveled a lot)

He always wear a tie, he even wear in bed

They are very rich. They even have their own private jet

Kita juga bisa menggunakan even bersamaan dengan comparatives (seperti Hotter/more surprised etc.)

Contoh:

It was very hot yesterday but today it’s even hotter

I got up at 6 o’clock but Jack even got up earlier

I knew I didn’t have much money but I’ve got even less than I thought

I was surprised to get a letter from her. I was even more surprised when she appeared at my door the next day

K.    As (reason) dan As (time)

1.      As (reason)

Berarti because (karena) Contoh:

As I was feeling tired, I went to bad early

As they live near us, we see the quite often

As tomorrow is public holiday, all the shops will be shut

As we had nothing better to do, we watch television the whole evening

2.      As (time)

Berarti ketika dan digunakan dalam dua keadaan yaitu:

  1. Something happening together
  • Kita bisa menggunakan as untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang terjadi secara bersamaan atau dalam periode yang sama

Contoh:

  • I watched her as she opened the letter
  • As they walked along the street, they look in the shop windows
  • Turn off the light as you go out, please.
  • Kita juga bisa menggunakan as untuk dua kejadian yang singkat

Contoh:

  • George arrived as I left
  • We all waved goodby to Tom as he drove away in his car
  • Kita menggunakan as bersamaan dengan just menjadi as just yang artinya (hampir ketika)

Contoh:

  • George arrived as just I left
  • Just as I sat down, the phone rang
  • Dan kita juga bisa menggunakan as untk menjelaskan perubahan yang terjadi secara bersamaan

Contoh:

  • As the day went out, the weather got worse
  • I began to enjoy the job more As I got used to do it
  1. One thing happening during another
  •  Kita bisa menggunakan as untuk menjelaskan hal yang terjadi ketika hal yang lain terjadi. Ketika kita menggunakan as dalam fungsi ini,

Contoh:

  • The man slipped as he was getting off the rain
  • Jill burnt as she was taking the cakes out of the oven
  • The thief was seen as he was climbing over the wall
  • Kita juga bisa menggabungkannya dengan as menjadi as just (hampir ketika)

Contoh:

  • Just as we were going out side, it started to rain
  • I had to leave just as the conversation was getting interesting

Note:

Kita tidak bisa hanya menggunakan as untuk dua kejadian yang terjadi secara bersamaan. Jadi kita tidak bisa menggunakannya untuk menjelaskan kejadian yang berurutan.

Contoh:

  •  When I got home, I had a bath (bukan “as I got home”)
  1. L.     Like dan As

Like mempunyai arti similar to atau the same as. Like adalah preposition oleh itu, selalu diikuti oleh noun (like a palace/like your job), pronoun (like me/like this) atau V-ing (like working/like walking). Dan kita juga bisa menggunakannya seperti pola berikut: like + someone/thing + V-ing.

Contoh:

  • What a beautiful house, it’s like a palace (bukan as a palace)
  • He’s a teacher like me
  • Why do you always talk about boring things like your job
  • Be careful! The floor has been polished like walking on ice
  • It’s raining again, I hate weather like this

Untuk penggunaan as, digunakan bersamaan dengan sentence (S + V) dan bandingkan contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 di bawah ini:

Contoh:

  • Don’t move anything. Leave everything as it is
  • You should have done it like this
  • You should have done it as I showed you

Note:

  • As bisa digabungkan dengan such menjadi such as yang artinya seperti (for example) dan kita bisa menggunakannya tanpa memakai verb

Contoh:

  • Some sports, such as motor-racing, can be dangerous
  • Kita juga bisa menggunakan bentuk as usual

Contoh:

  • You’re late as usual
  • Kita bisa mengatakan as  you know/as we expected/as I said etc.

Contoh:

  • As you know, it’s Tom’s birth day next week
  • Ann failed her driving test as we expected
  • Kadang-kadang as juga bisa menjadi preposition (oleh itu kita bisa menggunakannya bersamaan dengan noun) tapi maknanya beda dengan Like.

Kalau like digunakan untuk membandingkan sesuatu,

Contoh:

  •  She looks beautiful like princess (She isn’t really a princess)
  • Everyone is ill at home. Our house is like a hospital (It’s not really a hospital)

Dan kita menggunakan as + Noun untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang benar-benar sudah aslinya (really is/was).

Contoh:

  • A few years ago, I worked as a bus driver (I really was a bus driver)
  • Sue has just found a ob as a shop assistant
  • During the war, this hotel was used as a hospital it’s rally hospital)
  • We haven’t got a car,  so we use the garage as a workshop
  • The news of her death came as great sock (it is really was a sock)
  1. M.  For, During, dan While
  2. Perbedaan penggunaan antara  for dan during

For digunakan untuk menjelaskan seberapa lama suatu kejadian terjadi (how long something goes on), contoh: for six years, for two monts, for a week

Contoh:

  • I’ve lived in this house for six years
  • We watched television for two hours last night
  • Ann is going away for a week in September
  • Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for ages
  • Are you going away for the week-end

Sedangkan during + noun digunakan untuk menjelaskan kapan suatu hal terjadi (whensomething happens) contoh: during the film, during our holiday, during the night.

Contoh:

  • I feel asleep during the film
  • We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday
  • The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night
  • I’ll phone you some time during the afternoon
  1. Perbedaan penggunaan antara During dan While

During digunakan bersamaan dengan noun sedangkan while digunakan bersamaan dengan subject + verb (sentence). Perhatikan dan bandingkan contoh-contoh brikut.

Contoh:

  • I feel asleep during the film

I feel asleep while I am watching the film

  • We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday

We met a lot of interesting people while we were on holiday

  • Robert suddenly began to feel ill during the examination

Robert suddenly began to feel ill while he was doing the examination

Note:

Ketika kita berbicara mengenai kejadian di masa akan dating, kita harus menggunakan tenses present (bukan tenses future) sesudah While.

Contoh:

  • I’m going to London next week. I hope to see Tom while I’m there
  • What are you going to do while you are waiting?
  • 1.N. At/On/In (time)
  • At digunakan dengan waktu seperti: at 5 o’clock, at 11.45, at Midnight, at lunch time etc.

Contoh:

  • Tom usually leaves work at 5 o’clock but we usually leave out when we ask (at) what time….?

Kita juga bisa menggunakan at bersamaan dengan kata-kata dalam kolom berikut ini:

At night I don’t like going out at night
At the week-end/at week-ends We will be here at the week-end
At Christmas/At Easter (public holiday periods) We give each other person at Christmas
At the moment/at present Mr. Benn is busy at the moment/at present
At the same time Ann and I arrived at the same time
At the age of …… Tom left school at the age of 16/at 16
  1. On digunakan bersamaan dengan tanggal dan hari seperti: on 12 march, on Friday, on Christmas day (tapi at Christmas)

Dan kita juga bisa mengatakan on Friday morning, on Sunday afternoon, on Monday evening, on Saturday night

Contoh:

  • I usually go out on Monday evening
  1. In digunakan untuk waktu yang panjang  seperti bulan, tahun, musim, seperti: in April, in 1988, in (the) winter, in the 20th Century, in the middle ages etc.

Contoh:

  •  They got married in 1978

Note:

Jangan menggunakan at/on/in sebelum next atau last,

Contoh:

  • I’ll see you next Friday (bukan on next Friday)
  • They got married last March (bukan in Last March)
  1. O.    At/On/In (position)

1)      At digunakan untuk menjelaskan bahwa keadaan sesuatu ada di pinggir/ujung. Untuk mengetahui lebih jelas, perhatikan contoh berikut:

  • Who is that man standing at the bus-stop/at the door/at the window
  • Turn left at the traffic lights
  • Write your name at the top/at the bottom of the page
  • Jack’s house is the white one at the end of the street
  • I couldn’t see very well because I was standing at the back

Kita juga bisa menggunakan at untuk menjelaskan sebuah kejadian atau acara, seperti: at a meeting, at a party, at a concert, at a conference etc.

Contoh:

  •  There were many people at the party/at the meeting
  • I saw Jack at the football match/at the concert on Saturday

Untuk kata-kata berikut, kita bisa menggunakan at. Perhatikan kolom di bawah ini:

At home At the seaside
At work At sea
At school At a station
At university At an airport

 

2)      kita menggunakan in untuk menjelaskan bahwa keadaan sesuatu ada di dalam, seperti: in a room, in a building, in a garden, in a park, in a town, in a country, in the water, in the sea, in a river, in a line, in a row etc.

Contoh:

  • there’s no one in the room/in the building/in the shop
  • the children are playing in the garden
  • Robert lives in a small village in the mountain
  • When we were in Italy, we spent a few days in Venice
  • She keeps her money in her bag

3)      at digunakan untuk menjelaskan bahwa keadaan sesuatu ada di atas atau menempel pada sesuatu, seperti: on the wall, on the floor etc.

Contoh:

  • Don’t sit on the floor/on the ground/on the grass
  • There’s a dirty mark on the wall/on the ceiling/on your nose
  • Have you seen the notice on he notice-board
  • The book you are looking for is on the top of shelf
  • Don’t sit on that chair

Bibliography

1        Heasley, Brendan, English for Communication, Jakarta: Erlangga, 1992.

2        Mc Donough, Jo, Shaw, Christopher, Materials and Methods in ELT, United State America: Black Well, 1993.

3        Murphy, Raymond, English Grammar in Use; a self study reference and practice book for intermediate students, Australia: Cambridge University, 1985.

4        NTC Vocabulary Builders, yellow book, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.

5        Patton, H. David, Commond Word; skill text series, Ohio, 1979.

6        Swan Michael, Practical English Usage, London: O.U.P., 1983.

7        Taylor, Grant, Mastering American English, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.

8        Thomson A.J., Martinet A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

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