Prof. George J. Posner
ANALYZING THE CURRICULUM
[The writer’s understanding listed when studied Analyzing the Curriculum using third edition book by George J. Posner (the scale 10-100 percent]
1. Introduction of Curriculum Analysis
In my opinion this chapter has explained how to analyze the curriculum is. To find everything in which support to be curriculum is. The other side we say “to know anatomy of curriculum’. In this chapter also gives explanation about concurrent curriculum: official curriculum, operational curriculum, hidden curriculum, null curriculum, and extra curriculum.
From this chapter, I know that curriculum can be analyzed to know how to make and use the curriculum. And I still have confusing about the example of concurrent curriculum and the function. And I hope from this chapter, I can study how important every aspect in curriculum is than only knowing curriculum its self is. And I hope getting goodness from analyzing curriculum for myself.
2. Situating the Curriculum
From this chapter, I can know about the story behind the curriculum those are somebody who has contribution of curriculum form. Those are the teacher, the learner, the subject matter and milieu.
We discussed about the situating of curriculum, we know where does the curriculum come from, who develop the curriculum, why we develop the curriculum, and how a curriculum affected by social, and we learned about a curriculum as a response to a problem. And also from this chapter, I know the story behind the curriculum: problem formulation, it means that problem for formulation becomes once important that is announced. The problem formulation is happened because of many people behind the curriculum who have different beliefs about and commitment to educate of what people should learn to do school is.
What I got understand from this chapter is when we want to arrange the curriculum we have to consider about situating the curriculum and the developers and I still did not understand about the M:ACOS story, and no one curriculum is fortune enough to find full representative of all four commonplaces on its development team. And I measure 7 for my understanding, because I still comprehend these materials.
In this chapter, I have problem of understanding about what M: Acus is, even though I have read the explanation, but it can’t make me clear about the material. And I have known little of an example of problem formulation: A nation at risk. So the conclusion of this chapter is that I can understand little explanation even though I have read it. And I measure 65 percent for my understanding, because I still comprehend these materials.
3. Theoretical Perspectives on Curriculum
We have learned chapter 3, and it tells about some theoretical perspectives on curriculum. There are five perspectives which we have learned. Those are traditional perspective, constructivist perspective, and structure of the discipline, experiential and behavioral perspective. In this section we divided into the groups and I got behavioral perspective. From the scale 10-100, I got 75 percent for my understanding of these materials. I just focus on the behavioral theory and I little bit confused between constructivist theory and experiential theory.
Constructivist theory focuses on how can people learn to make sense of the world and to think more productively and creatively and the proponent of this view is Immanuel Kant, Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky. From the scale 1-10, I got 6 for my understanding of these materials. I just focus on the behavioral theory and I little bit confused between constructivist theory and experiential theory.
I still remember that this chapter has talked about the five theoretical perspectives, and from this chapter, I have known about the content of each curriculum and about how important content curriculum is. And also I have known people that supported in each theoretical perspective.
The five theoretical perspectives are:
- Traditional that has been promoted by William Torrey Haris and it Focuses on transmitting the cultural heritage. And this perspective believes that the best old curriculum in the last years become a reference in the new curriculum. And the goal of this perspective is acculturation.
- Experimental that has been promoted by John Dewey and it focuses on students’ experiences. And this perspective believes that all school’s activities should implicate the activities of life. And understanding how curriculum can be considered in this broadcast possible way. And developing clear and workable principles to guide practical division about such curriculum.
- Structure of the disciplines that has been promoted by Jerrold Zacharias and it focuses on subject in the school and this perspective believes that is importance of deleting gap school students and university students. And teaching is only in the most fundamental concepts and teaching how to derive the rest of basics of knowledge from the concept.
- Behavioral that has been promoted by Aristotle’s nad Edward Thorndike and it focuses on not only in the content, but what student should be able to do. And the specifics objectives derived from the analysis as the principal methods of curriculum development.
- Constructivist that has been promoted by Plato and it focuses on emphasizing student’s mind means that making knowledge, intelligent that are emphasized on student where the teacher should know the development of intelligent on children.
From this chapter, I am very interested, because of the interesting topics. And I know kinds of perspectives of curriculum. The last I can give conclusion that I understand this chapter than the chapter before, even though there are still having many weakness of understanding. From I got 75 for my understanding of these materials. I just focus on the behavioral theory and I little bit confused between constructivist theory and experiential theory.
4. Curriculum Purpose and content
In this chapter, I have still got same information as proving chapter, but in this more emphasized the purpose of the content of the curriculum. My understanding about this chapter is that each of the curriculums has a purpose and content. And I learned what is training and education.
And there are some goals and objectives. Those are societal goals, administrative goals and educational aim, and educational goals and learning objectives. I did not understand the difference between educational aim and educational goals. As I got from this section that there are some views which related with , and curriculum purpose, like psychological view concerns with two aspects of curriculum; those are the conceptions of the subject matter and the forms of representation and multicultural view; this view is concern about the purpose of education is how to accommodate the diversity of the student population; the multicultural education. I didn’t understand with this view. And I think I understand this chapter very much. From the scale 10-100, I got 85 percent for my understanding of these materials, because I have known before from previous meeting, so it is only stabilization process.
5. Training and Educational Contexts for Curriculum
In this chapter, I can know difference of training and education in the context for curriculum that:
Training: contexts in which we can predict with some confidence the specific situations in which people will use what they learn.
Education: context in which we cannot predict with any specificity or certainty the situations in which people will use what they learn.
And I have known levels of educational purposes which include social goals, administrative goals, educational goals and aims, and learning objectives. And also I can know three levels relating one another which are the taxonomy bloom, Gagne’s categories, and Ryle’s two types of knowledge that are Two major types of knowledge one can acquire “knowing that” refer to propositional knowledge. “Knowing how” refer to performance capabilities, what we might call SKILLS. And the last, I have known the contents of curriculum which include a pedagogical view, a multicultural view, and aspect of technology and content in curriculum. I got 70 percent for my understanding of these materials.
6. Curriculum Purpose and Content
In this chapter has explained that the good curriculums in the present are behavioral and constructivist curriculum. Because both have reasons: behavioral curriculum (Learning is Change in behavior, conditional, habit formation, and having the concepts of organism and environment), while constructivist’s reasons are Cognitive concepts are emphasized, and every individual person uses different models to present the concept. And to get result of curriculum purpose, we need teacher’s roles means that there are many roles that teacher should do it such as; teacher has to have lesson plans, concept able and observable material. Technology in its relation into content also describes in this chapter. Technology offers the possibility of approaching and organizing content in new way and also creates an opportunity to teach content not otherways possible. Technology can change how content is covered by creating new disciplinary areas, reconfiguring disciplinary course context, etc. and the last is that I understand the almost the content of this chapter.
7. Perspectives on organizing principles and epistemological dimension: the structure of knowledge.
Perspectives on organizing principles:
- Traditional: focus on content (building information and skills), content sequence is typically based on the organization of subject matter itself, and every educated person should know basic skills and traditional values.
- Structure of the principles: the central concept is disciplines serve as the organization of elements, and curriculum designed to the structure of disciplines.
- Experimental: the experiences of students have as they engage in purposeful activities, and the content is most typically sequenced according to the way it lives used in dealing with everyday problems.
- Behavior: it is organized around behavioral, and consist of terminal behavior.
- Constructivist: cognitive concepts are emphasized, and every individual uses difference modes to present the concept.
The last, I think that I very understand this chapter, because I very interested to read, so that I was still having assignment about this chapter in my activity when I had to present the material about this chapter, and I got 9 for my understanding of these materials.
8. Curriculum Organization
We have learned the basic concept of curriculum organization and I got my understanding about this materials. First the curriculum organization divided into macro and micro organization. Macro level organization for the organization of courses to form of a progress and micro level organization are referring to the organization of a course or a unit. And also there are vertical and horizontal dimensions, and there are some varieties of curriculum one of them is spiral curriculum which popularized by Jerome Bruner. The physical facilities and the materials available also affect curriculum organization.
As I have learned from this materials. This material tells about the three approaches to make a curriculum organization. Three major of curriculum organization are structure of the discipline, a behavioral, and experiential perspective and curriculum should be organized around fundamental concepts, themes and principles and that from an understanding of these fundamental concepts the students develop the ability to derive particular facts and application. and as I see there are top down approach and bottom up approach. Top down approach is major actors is the scholars and a top down approach based on the theory of the discipline which assumes that we can deductively derive all knowledge from a small set of general, abstract idea and curriculum in to approach should be congruence between the discipline and the school curriculum in contrast with bottom up approach. In bottom-up approach is the most important determinant of learning is prerequisite learning and curriculum organization should be reflect the way people learn, rather than the way knowledge is organized the discipline . and about the project approach. As I got from this approach , it tells about the interaction between thought and action, project- centered curricula are organized around student activity, which the teacher and student plan together. and there are major claims of the project approach. Actually in this section, we divided into the groups and I read the major claims. For example the case of foxfire, The foxfire programs is perhaps the best- known current model of a project- centered curriculum, In this case the teachers asked to all of the students in the class room to make a magazine, so all of the students involved how to make a magazine. They will be editor, writer, or reporter
Besides explaining the material herself, the chapter discussed about curriculum organization. The term of curriculum organization could be defined as the elements those could be inserted in arranging curriculum. There are some basic structures in curriculums organization like content structures including discrete or flat, hierarchical, linear, and spiral. Another structure is media structure including parallel, convergent, divergent, and mixed. There are also organizational principle like subject material, learners and learning, teacher and teaching, milieu which is divided into social, economic, political, organizational and physical. And actually I do not understand in some pert of this chapter like the three parts I have mentioned in the previous paragraph. I got 75 percent of understanding from this chapter.
9. Frame Factors: Basic Concept
In this meeting we have discussed about the frame factors in the curriculum that are used for limiting and constraining on teaching. The factors of frame include temporal frames, physical frames, political-legal frames, organizational frames, personal or personnel frames, economic frames, and cultural frames. So, from this explanation, teacher should have ability to manage the class room, create a police state and derive some satisfaction from teaching, and evaluate students.
We have learned about the frame factors, and as my understanding about this materials. this materials tells about the frame factors that involved curriculum like the task of teaching, temporal frame, Physical frame, Political- Legal Frames, Organizational frames, personal frames, economic frames, and cultural frames. The task of teaching is important in curriculum implementation because the teachers have a big role to make the curriculum success. The tasks of teaching are coverage, mastery, management, positive affect and evaluation. In coverage (what kind of skill and experience that the student have to accomplish ) mastery ( The teacher have to mastery the knowledge ) Positive affect ( a good teacher have to be a good effective affect ) Management ( The teachers should manage the class, the teachers is like a manager in the drama). Another thing that I get from this material is about the personal frames, why personal frames can make a curriculum success because characteristic of the student population are a major determinant of the success or failure of a curriculum. Temporal frames focus on the time, because the time is the most precious resource of the teacher, As teacher we always seem to need far more time than is available. In fact if the time is not limited, there would be no coverage/ mastery dilemma, but because time is always in short supply, teachers are constantly making compromises based on priorities. and based on my understanding physical frames can make a curriculum success because if the school have a laboratory, field, and good facilities I think the curriculum will be success because the student can learned from the good facilities.
Another material is frame factors. Frame factors function as limitations or constraints on teaching, and thus on curriculum implementation. Frame factors directly affect the interaction like the availability of textbooks and the content knowledge of the teacher which is usually called by proximal. Then factor like budget size is termed distal or higher-order. In frame factors there are temporal frames, physical frames, political legal frames, organizational frames, personal frames, economic frames, and cultural frames. The perspectives like traditional, experiential, structure of the disciplines, behavioral, and constructivist which are described in the previous chapters are also discussed in this chapter. And the last, I felt not easy to understand about multicultural view and technology and frame factors. So, my understanding of this chapter is 65 percent.
10. Curriculum Organization: Conflicting Perspectives
In this meeting we have studied about curriculum organization, it means that we have known how to organize the curriculum is using three approaches to organize curriculum: Top-down Approach (specific material or from the common to the specific), Bottom-up approach (from the specific material to the common one), and project approach. The three approaches have epistemological foundation, organizational principles, major claims (characteristics), and content structures those have differences in the context but have same purpose.
And we have learned the basic concept of curriculum organization and I got my understanding about this materials. First the curriculum organization divided into macro and micro organization. Macro level organization for the organization of courses to form of a progress and micro level organization are referring to the organization of a course or a unit. And the physical facilities and the materials available also affect curriculum organization. For example the available outdoor education facilities might lead to an environmental approach. I got 80 percent for my understanding.
11. Curriculum Implementation
As I got from this materials that curriculum should be implemented, and the experts gave teachers answers and solutions to question teachers never asked and to problems the teachers never had. and there is psychometric method; ( the teachers taught whatever it was going to be test) and curriculum implementation is assessed by determining whether or not teacher practice meet the criteria of curriculum developer, in there are inadequate materials, poor disseminations efforts or lack of provision change needed to help teachers use the materials. And there is collaborative approach, as I got from this approach, it tells that alternative assessment is encouraged and curriculum change is seen as a process of multiple implementations. I got 70 percent for this comprehension. I still did not catch the collaborative approach.
13. Curriculum Evaluation: Conflicting Perspectives
This is the last meeting. This chapter talks about the deeper context about curriculum evaluation. Methods of assessment are discussed in this topic. The study of evaluation is a critical aspect of curriculum analysis. Contrasting different views bring tacit assumption underlying current practice into sharper release. It also discusses several models. Measurement-based evaluation is based on two assumption; that educational practice are justified by the learning outcomes educators seek to achieve and that these outcomes can be measured.
As I got from this materials that curriculum should be implemented, and the experts gave teachers answers and solutions to question teachers never asked and to problems the teachers never had. and there is psychometric method; ( the teachers taught whatever it was going to be test) and curriculum implementation is assessed by determining whether or not teacher practice meet the criteria of curriculum developer, in there are inadequate materials, poor disseminations efforts or lack of provision change needed to help teachers use the materials. and there is collaborative approach, as I got from this approach, it tells that alternative assessment is encouraged and curriculum change is seen as a process of multiple implementation
The other models are integrated evaluation. This kind of evaluation focuses on trivial and contrived tasks. There are characteristics of integrated evaluation such growth oriented, student controlled, collaborative, dynamic, contextualized, informal, and flexible and Action-oriented. Growth oriented. According to experiential educators and evaluators using an integrated approach, educators have often lost sight of goals. Next, student controlled. Giving student a measure is to control over their environment by yielding a degree of decision making responsibility. Absolutely it is very interesting material, because it’s about evaluation. And I got the understanding 85 percent from this material.
Curriculum Changes in Indonesia
And we learned about the curriculum changes in Indonesia. From this section I knew that Indonesia has made change in curriculum development. It started from the curriculum 1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004, 2006, as I got from this section that curriculum in Indonesia is always changes. It is happened because of the situation in Indonesia. Like “Tritura” can affected the curriculum. And like curriculum in 1968; the purpose of this curriculum is to make people in Indonesia to be a strong and health and to increase the intelligence and the skills of the students in Indonesia and I got some comprehension from the difference of the curriculum itself. For example on competency curriculum (2004), it is focus on the student competence and this curriculum make a standard in test and students is autonomous learning ( it is mean that the students can learn not only in the school, but they can get the information from other sources) and on curriculum 2004 used measurement based and integrated evaluation for measure the evaluations of student and my comprehension about curriculum of KTSP is that on this curriculum the teachers or the headmasters of the school have a big right to develop the curriculum which is suitable with the students need.