Language in Diversity

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech atau kalimat langsung adalah kalimat yang digukan untuk menirukan kalimat/kata-kata yang diucapkan oleh pembicara apa adanya atau tanpa adanya perubahan/pengurangan. Dalam penulisannya menggunakan tanda kutip.
Contoh: Feby said,” I am student.”

Sedangkan indirect speech atau kalimat tidak langsung adalah kalimat yang menceritakan kembali atau mengukang/melaporkan oleh pembicara tanpa adanya perubahan arti/maksud perkataan pembicara. Contoh: feby said that he was student.”

Ada tiga (3) bentuk kalimat yang diucapkan:

  1. 1.      Statement (kalimat pernyataan)
  2. 2.      Pohibition/Command (larangan/perintah)
  3. 3.      Question (kalimat Tanya)

 

  1. 1.      Statement

Untuk mengubah direct speech menjadi indirect speech yang berasal dari bentuk statement di syaratkan:

  1. Memakai reporting verbs: say, tell, explain, inform etc.
  2. Menggunakan “That” yang mempunyai arti “bahwa”.
  3. Ubahlah pronoun siapa yang berbicara dan yang diajak bicara. Biasanya orang pertama dan orang ke dua diganti orang ke tiga dan berlaku pula pada possessive adjective kecuali jika pembicara menirukan perkataan sendiri. Contoh:

–          Direct: I said,” I love all my teachers.”

–          Indirect: I said that I loved all my teachers.

–          Direct: He said,” I have sent a letter.”

–          Indirect: He said that he had sent a letter.

–          Direct: the lecturer said,” you can read this book,”

–          Indirect: the lecturer told John that he could read that book.

  1. Jika reporting verbs nya dalam bentuk present tense, maka tidak terjadi perubahan tenses di anak kalimat. Contoh:

–          Direct: Yunida says,” I always like my activities.”

–          Indirect: Yunida says that she always likes her activities.

–          Direct: Yunida says,” You are my best boy friend.”

–          Indirect: Yunida tells me that I am her best boyfriend.

NB: Perbedaan say dan tell
            Say: tidak diikuti oleh objek (boleh ada objek asal di kasih ‘to’)

Tell: diikuti objek.

  1. Jika reported speech nya dalam bentuk past tense, maka terjadi perubahan tenses:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

  1. Simple present tense
  2. Present continuous tense
  3. Present perfect tense
  4. Present perfect continuous tense
  5. Simple past
  6. Past continuous
  7. Future
  8. present

 

  1. simple past tense
  2. past continuous tense
  3. past perfect tense
  4. past perfect continuous tense
  5. past perfect
  6. past perfect continuous
  7. past tense
  8. past

f. Perubahan keterangan waktu dan keterangan tempat/kata ganti penunjuk

 

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

  1. now
  2. today
  3. yesterday
  4. the day before yesterday
  5. the day after tomorrow
  6. next week/month/year
  7. last week/month/year
  8. a week/month/year ago
  9. ……..ago
  10. Last night
  11. Tomorrow
  12. Here
  13. This
  14. these
 
  1. at the moment/then
  2. that day
  3. the day before
  4. two days before
  5. in today’s time
  6. the following week/month/year
  7. the previous week/month/year
  8. a week/month/year atau the previous week/month/year
  9. ………..before
  10. The night before
  11. The day after/the following day/the next day
  12. There
  13. That
  14. those

Contoh:

Direct: Dony said,” My mother is listening now.”

Indirect: Dony said that his mother was listening at that time.

Direct: Febby said,” I visited Australia last year.”

Indirect: Febby said that she had visited Australia the previous year.

 NB:

–          Perubahan tenses atau adverb tidak harus, tetapi dilakukan untuk menyesuaikan situasinya.

          Contoh:

Direct: My girl friend said,” Surabaya is bigger than Kediri”

Indirect: my girl friend said (that) Surabaya is (was) bigger than Kediri.

Pada contoh diatas perubahan tidak selalu di perlukan (is manjadi was).

–          Should, ought, had better, would, used to, could, must, biasanya tidak mengalami perubahan. Contoh:

Direct: Jony said,” I would help you if I could.”

Indirect: Jony said that he would help me if he could.

–          Past tense yang dipakai sesudah wish dan would rather tidak mengalami perubahan. Contoh:

Direct: She said,”I wish I understood.”

Indirect: she said that she wished she understood.

 2.      Command dan negative command

     a.      Command (kalimat perintah)

Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat perintah,reporting verb nya harus mempunyai arti dasar memerintah. Contoh: invite, command, warn, order, ask, tell, advise, urge. Contoh:

Direct: Nisa said,” wait for me, Siska! ”

Indirect: Nisa asked Siska to wait for her.

     b.      Negative command/prohibition (kalimat larangan)

Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat larangan (negative command) mempunyai hal yang harus di perhatikan yaitu;

  1. Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat perintah, gunakanlah to-infinitive sesudah orang yang diperintah.
  2. Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat perintah (negative command), maka pakailah not to-infinitive sesudah orang yang diperintah.
  3. Perubahan pronoun tergantung pada siapa yang disuruh dan yg menyuruh.

Contoh:

Direct: Nisa said to Bebby,” Don’t come to my room.”

Indirect: Nisa warned Bebby not to come to her room.

3.      Question (Kalimat Tanya)

Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat Tanya, tanda Tanya (?) nya dihilangkan, sehingga menjadi kalimat pernyataan. Dengan ketentuan:

  1. Jika bentuk pertanyaan terdapat Question Words (when, where, what, how, why etc.) kata tersebut harus di sebutkan lagi. Contoh:

Direct: she said,” why did you go to the campus? ”

Indirect: she asked (me) why I had gone to the campus.

    2. Jika bentuk pertanyaan dimulai dengan kata kerta bantu (auxiliary), maka berilah whether atau if  yang mempunyai ari “apakah” setelah reporting verbs. Contoh:

Direct: Febby said, “Do you love me?”

Indirect: Febby asked (me) if I loved her.

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