Language in Diversity

TENSES

TENSES

Tenses dalam bahasa inggris dapat diguakan untuk menunjukan waktu kejadian suatu peristiwa. Dimana didalam bahasa inggris ada 12 tenses yang dikelompokan menjadi 3 grup dan setiap grupnya dibagi menjadi 4 bentuk penggunaanya yaitu:

a.      The past tenses (simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous)

b.      The present tense (simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous)

c.       The future tenses (simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous)

A.    The past tenses

1.      Simple past tense

A private conversation

Last week I went to the theater. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting. I didn’t enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking loudly. I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turned around. I looked the man and the woman angrily. They didn’t pay any attention. In the end, I could not bear it. I turned again. “Woyyy I can’t hear a word!” I said angrily. “It’s none of your business,” the young man said rudely. ‘This is a private conversation!’(Resource: practice and progress by L.G. Alexander).

Pola:  S+V2
Penggunaan: untuk menyatakan perbuatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau.
contoh: I studied in UIN Jakarta, Yunida met her lecturer yesterday.

Keterangan waktu pada past tense (Time signal): yesterday, this morning, formerly, just now, ….ago, last…, the day before yesterday.

2.      Past continuous tense

A private conversation

Last week I went to the theater. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting. I didn’t enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking loudly. I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turned around. I looked the man and the woman angrily. They didn’t pay any attention. In the end, I could not bear it. I turned again. “Woyyy I can’t hear a word!” I said angrily. “It’s none of your business,” the young man said rudely. ‘This is a private conversation!’(Resource: practice and progress by L.G. Alexander)

Pola: S+was/were+Ving
Penggunaan:

(1) menyatakan perbuatan yang terjadi diwaktu lampau bersamaan dengan pekerjaan lain contoh: When I arrived, Yunida was studying English.

(2) Untuk menyatakan menyatakan dua pekerjaan yang bersamaan contoh: I was reading message when Yunida was talking to me.
(3) Dan untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang berlangsung diwaktu lampau contoh: I was sleeping at eleven o’clock.

3.      Past perfect tense  

Nobody had believed it was possible

In 1912, the Titanic hit an iceberg on its first trip across the Atlantic, and it sank four hours later. At that time, the Titanic was the largest ship that had ever traveled on the sea. It was carrying 2207 people, but it had taken on enough lifeboats for only 1178 people, when the passenger tried to leave the ship, only 651 of them were able to get into lifeboats.

The Carpathia was 58 miles away when Titanic called on its radio for help. It arrived two hours after the great ship had gone down, and it saved 705 people. Some of the survivors had been in the ice water for hours when they were saved. Most of the passengers hadn’t lived that long; 1502 people had lost their lives. (Resource: Improving Reading Skill in English, Team of Five)

Pola: S + had + V3
Penggunaan: Menyatakan perbuatan/peristiwa yang telah terjadi pada saat perbuatan/peristiwa lain menysul dimana terjadi pada waktu lampau contoh: My friends had gone to the cinema before I went home. I had lived in Jakarta for five years when my parent went to Mecca.

Time signal yang digunakan dalam past perfect tense

  • after…………..: sesudah/setelah
  • ………….when : ketika
  • As soon as…….: segera
  • …….by the time: pada waktu
  • …………before: sebelum

4.      Past perfect continuous tense

Luckily, I had been wearing my seat belt

The snowstorm in our country last week was not a large one, but it caused many accidents. The snow started to come down in the late afternoon. I saw it through the window of the office building where I work as a secretary. It had been snowing for an hour when I started to drive home. The cars had been driving slowly because of the dangerous roads. It was slippery snow that froze when it hit the roads. Earlier, the snow had been melting, but by evening it was staying on the roads. Police cars had been checking the traffic regularly. I had been driving for twenty minutes when the accident happened. Mt heater had not been working, and the snow had been freezing on my window. So, I couldn’t see well. I had been stopping to clear my window every few minutes. I had just started the car again when my tires started to slip. The car slipped onto the side of the road. When it hit the hill, it returned over and stopped. I felt and looked to see if I was hurt, but I wasn’t. I had been driving quite slowly, and luckily I had been wearing my seatbelt. It was very quiet, with just the sounds of musing falling snow; I had been playing radio. Soon the police come to help me, and I was able to reach home in another hour. (Resource: Improving Reading Skill in English, Team of Five)

Pola: S + had+Been+ Ving

Penggunaan: untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan/peristiwa yang sudah dimulai dan masih berkangsung pada masa lampau contoh: I had been living in Jakarta for four years in 2010. Yunida had been playing marble when I finished doing my homework.

NB: Perbedaan past perfect tense dan past perfect continuous tense adalah:

  • Hady had lived in Jakarta for five years when my parent went to Mecca.

(peristiwa pertama berlangsung sampai peristiwa kedua dimulai atau  pereistiwa pertama selesai pada waktu peristiwa kedua dimulai)

  • Hady had been living in Jakarta for two years when Saeful went to Mecca.

(Peristiwa pertama berlangsung sampai peristiwa kedua dimulai dan masih berlangsung ketika peristiwa kedua berlangsung)

B.     The Present Tense

1.      Simple present tense

My next country

France is my dream country which I want to go over there and perhaps it becomes the next country when I have to choice a country after mother land. And also I believe that it will be happened because of my God will accede my aim. Of course I have reason, why I want to go to France. To know and  see directly the history of the place and study about technology science and the other side I can see the master piece of development technology, beautiful scene and try kinds original food which become the special food from that location are making me want to visit and live in France.

Pola: S+V1 (V1 ditambah s/es bilamana subjeknya bentuk ketiga tuggal{he,she,it})

Penggunaan: (1) Menyatakan suatu kebiasaan atau kegiatan yang berulang,(2) menyatakan kebenaran umum contoh: (1) Harry meets his English teacher every Monday. (2) The moon revolves around the earth.
Time signal yang sering di gunakan dalam simple present: always, often, sometimes, never, usually, once a…., twice…., every….. dan sebagainya.

2.      Present continuous tense

An Exciting Trip

I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of the different place in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting (Resource: practice and progress by L.G. Alexander).

Pola: S + am/is/are + V ing
Penggunaan: (1) untuk menyatakan peristiwa/perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung pada saat kita bicara, (2) untuk menyatakan waktu yang akan datang suatu peristiwa/perbuatan contoh kata-katanya: go, leave, visit dan sebagainya contoh: (1) my classmates are playing football (2) my mother is leaving for Mecca tomorrow.

Dalam present continuous tense, ada beberapa kata kerja yang tidak bisa di-continuous-kan (non-progressive verb) yaitu: Mental states (believe, feel, doubt, forget, imagine, know, mean, need, prefer, realize, recognize, remember, suppose, think, understand, want), Emotional States (mind, love, like, hate, fear, envy, dislike, care, appreciate), Possession (belong, have, own, posses), Sense Perception (taste, feel, see, hear, smell), and other Existing States (weight, seem, owe, look, include, exist, cost, contain, consist of, be, appear).

3.      Present Perfect Tense

An Exciting Trip

I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of the different place in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting (Resource: practice and progress by L.G. Alexander).

Pola: S + have/has + V3 (Has di gunakan bilamana subjek berupa bentuk ketiga tunggal {he, she, it})

Penggunaan: (1) untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan/peristiwa yang telah selesai pada waktu yang tidak ditentukan di waktu lampau. Yang ditekankan adalah akibat/hasil dari perbuatan itu, (2) untuk menyatakan perbuatan/peristiwa yang sudah dimulai waktu lampau dah masih berkelanjutan pada waktu sekarang contohnya: (1). I have already gone to America three times. Harry has read his mother’s latter. (2) Ronny have played football for more than one hour.

4.      Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Are Buses as Easy to Use as cars?

When the weather is cold, it’s not very much fun to wait for a bus. These people have been standing on the corner for fifteen minutes. They have been watching the traffic, looking for the bus, and hoping it will come soon. They have been talking about the bus and complaining about the weather. Most of them feel cold. One smart man has been drinking coffee to stay warm. Traveling on buses decreases pollution, but people often would rather drive their cars. Many people are not used to the bus schedules, and they don’t like to wait.

On the other hand, many people have been talking the bus everyday for many years, they are used to it. They say the bus has been coming on time every day, and they have never been late work. In addition, they haven’t needed a parking place in all that time. Buses are very convenient when you are used to them. (Resource: Improving Reading Skill in English, Team of Five)

Pola: S + have/has + been + Ving

Penggunaan: untuk menyatakn perbuatan/peristiwa yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung dan punya kemungkinan masih terus berlangsung contoh: Yunida has been studying English for four years.

C.    The Future Tense

  1. Simple Future Tense

An Exciting Trip

I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of the different place in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting (Resource: practice and progress by L.G. Alexander).

Pola: S + will/shall + V1 atau S + To be + Going to + V1

Penggunaan: untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan/peristiwa yang akan di lakukan pada waktu yang akan datang contohnya: I will play football this afternoon. I am going to play football this afternoon.

NB: perbedaan penggunaan Will dan be going to

–  Menggunakan will/shall bilamana belum ada rencana atau akan terjadi bila suatu kondisi tertentu terjadi.

–  Sedangkan penggunaan be going to bilamana sudah ada rencaha atau sudah pasti.

2.      Future Continuous Tense

When the clock strikes 10.00 AM the Indonesian people will be watching the commemoration of the independent day on TV or listening to the radio. Those who are lucky will be sitting at the palace, Istana Negara. They will be watching the ceremony of hoisting the “original” National Indonesian Flag in front of the palace. At 10.00 sharp Siren will be blown loudly as a signal of the beginning of the big event. The army will be firing 21 times salvo. Churches will be ringing the big bells and the mosque will be striking “the Bedug” or big drums. All guests at the palace, and the transportations in the town will be standing still for a few minutes to commemorate “detik-detik Proklamasi” or the exact time of the proclamation said by Bung Karno. (Resource: Improving Reading Skill in English, Team of Five)

Pola: S + will + be + Ving

Penggunaan: untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa/perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung diwaktu yang akan datang contoh: I will be watching television when you come at 8 o’clock tonight.

3.         Future Perfect Tense

Fire Chief Brown says that in another hour they will have put out the fire in the house. At that time, the house will have been burning for three houses. Half of the house will be gone. Chief Brown is afraid that fire in the restaurant may go on until ten o’clock. Before it is out, the restaurant will have been blazing for five hours. Every few minutes, part of the building fall in.

Pola: S + will/shall + have + V3

Penggunaan: untuk menyatakan perbuatan/peristiwa yang sudah dimulai pada waktu lampau, dan akan segera selesai diwaktu yang akan datang contohnya: Hadi will have written two letters for his mother by the end of this week.

Time signal yang biasa digunakan contohnya: by the end of….. (menjelang akhir..), by… (menjelang) dan sebagainya.

4.      Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Fire Chief Brown says that in another hour they will have put out the fire in the house. At that time, the house will have been burning for three houses. Half of the house will be gone. Chief Brown is afraid that fire in the restaurant may go on until ten o’clock. Before it is out, the restaurant will have been blazing for five hours every few minutes, part of the building fall in. (Resource: Improving Reading Skill in English, Team of Five)

Pola: S + shall/will + have + been + Ving

Penggunaan: untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa/perbuatan yang sudah dimulai sebelumnya dan akan diteruskan pada waktu tersebut, serta dilakukan diwaktu yang akan datang contohnya: I will have been living in Malang for five years in 2020.

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